In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are Signs for people with intelligence: those who remember Allah, standing, sitting and lying on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: ‘Our Lord, You have not created this for nothing. Glory be to You! So safeguard us from the punishment of the Fire. (Surah Al-Imran, 190-191)
Thunders in the sky, heavy rain, snow, strong winds or clear weather… These are all climactic events happening on our planet.
Variety is a particular feature of the climate on Earth.
This variation is based on many factors such as the Earth’s shape, its rotation, altitude, exposure, dispersion of land and water, distance from the sea, and ocean currents. The fact that climatic events are comprised of so many various effects is indeed the supreme creation of Almighty Allah.
Ocean currents are defined as a continuous directed movement of a limited amount of water mass.
Currents that are in east-west direction in high and low latitudes can be cold or warm in accordance with the proper temperature of the latitude they are in.
The Almighty Allah manifests many wisdom in the warm and cold water currents so that men can think and learn from it.
Some of the wisdoms behind this event are listed below.
They Cause Climate Change
Warm currents cause a temperature rise while moving from warm regions to less warmer regions. For instance due to the effect of the Kuroshiyo warm current in Japan, winters are warmer and more humid than it is supposed to be in that particular latitude and thanks to this warm climate, the region has rich natural vegetation.
Due to the Gulfstream warm current, Norway is more warm and rainy in winter than it is supposed to be in its latitude; although it is around the Arctic Circle. The sea is not covered with ice along the shores. A similar scenario is also relevant for Great Britain, as well. The temperature is unexpectedly high for the latitude it is in.
Some cold currents are derived from cold regions or from the deep cold waters coming to the surface and despite that the water temperature is 15°, they are felt as cold currents in hot latitudes. As a result, they decrease the temperature and minimize the effect of heat. For instance, the Beguela cold water current moving towards North along the Namibia shores in South Africa causes a decrease in temperature; the similar scenario is relevant for the Canary current along the shores of Morocco and the Humbolt cold water current in Peru and South America.
They Cause the Formation of Shore Deserts
The reason for the formation of shore deserts on the west of the continents is cold ocean currents. (The Benguela current on the southwest of Africa formed the Namib Desert and the Humboldt Current on the west of South America formed Atamaca desert.) Nevertheless, this type of desert is different from the continent deserts in the inland where it is dry and the temperature is high. In this type of desert, the humidity is condensed such that the increase or decrease in temperature is insignificant. This allows for poor formation of herbal vegetation for animals to feed on.
They Cause the Arrangement of Rain
In regions where cold water currents are found, the currents cool the air mass, and as a result they prevent the air mass from condensation such that rain occurs when the air moves more inland to warmer temperatures. Therefore on the coastline, they form foggy, cloudy and cold weather.
They Increase Biodiversity
Water currents carry food and oxygen in the ocean. The planktons brought by the currents increase the fish diversity due to their nutrition potentials. Consequently, the number of marine birds that feed on these fish increase. (For instance, in the strait between the Mexica Yucatan peninsula and Cuba. The Humbolt current and the Gulf Stream current that can be effective about 800 m deep down from time to time and that can carry more water than the Mississippi River has a significant role.)
Algae, some herbaceous marine plants and some plant seeds, some diaspores that can float 1600 km while remaining water-proof are carried along the currents to different regions of the world. Similarly, plant seeds on the glaciers that are able to reach lower latitudes thanks to the cold currents can be spread even further.
They Contribute to the Nutrition of Men
The Name of Our Almighty Allah, Ar-Razzaq is manifested when we look at the variety of economic benefits we obtain based on these currents. As a matter of fact, thanks to the effect of the Mosambic warm current, sugar cane is able to grow in lower latitudes; biodiversity and the number of fish feeding on organisms brought by the current also increase and the result is the development of fishing industry.
There is no rain along the coasts of Peru that is under the influence of cold water current; however permanent clouds during the winter allow the formation of herbal vegetation called “Loma”. This herbal vegetation enables the development of breeding.
On the islands along the coasts of Peru, a kind of natural manure called Guana is left on the neighboring islands by the marine birds as a result of the food chain that is derived from the cold current; it is highly rich in nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium.
They Control the Speed and Route of Ships
Currents can increase the speed of the ships as long as their direction is same with the current; otherwise they can have a preventive effect. As polar currents carry the ice to the middle latitudes; these regions are dangerous for a voyage. At locations where cold and warm currents are mingled, the sea is very agitated and may consist of waves and whirlpools. Also the fog over such an area is dangerous for navigation. (Harun Yahya, Miracles of Quran)
The Influence of Ocean Currents upon The Fine Tuning on Earth
As a result a slightest change in the currents; the marine temperature difference would be so sudden that the oxygen and salt ratio would change. This would cause the death of fish and other marine creatures.
“On July 23, 1958; an oceanic research ship “Sivastopol” was floating through the Denmark Strait. Suddenly, those on the ship came across an unbelievable scene: The waves were all lily-white. The sea surface was covered with the floating bodies of dead fishes. It was understood that the fish died due to a sudden temperature change.”
“On June 1967, on the west of Puerto Rico in a lagoon that was full of fish, the temperature rose up to 350C and the amount of salt rose up to %0.43. The fused oxygen in the water decreased so significantly fish, crabs and shrimps all died.”
Similarly, the slightest change in the balance of the currents would have resulted in climate abnormalities. Intense fog and floods brought by heavy rain could cause fatal accidents.
“The deadliest and the most unforgettable disaster was the one due to the London fogs in December 1952. On December 5, fog started to form as a result of the wind. Three days later the fog became intense and soon, the visibility range decreased to a few meters. Traffic stopped entirely and many accidents occurred. Some ignorant people tried to heat their residence in order to fight the humidity. That action produced more coal dust and sulfur dioxide; as a result the air contained extra pollutants and caused more condensation. There were 4,000 deaths due to the fog and air pollution.”
“Sometimes, on the coast of Peru, the warm currents from north of the equator move towards the south between December and March and they enable warm humid air to move above the shores and as a result there is a lot of rain that causes flooding, they damage residences and roads. They may even cause environmental disasters that can affect marine creatures such as marine birds and also their migration patterns.”
If there is a change in currents that take place, it could result in climatic difficulties. The plants in the warm regions would not be seen in the cold regions. Tropical plants would not be seen in moderate regions and this would mean that there would be a decrease in the richness of species and the boundaries of the agricultural lands, that is to say, the land where people live would not be so vast.
Water currents that are warm and cold affect the weather exactly where they should and as a result the currents enable an area where life can flourish. That is a sign of Allah’s Supreme Knowledge and His eternally perfect creation.