Chapter 2: What Darwinists Fail To Consider - 2
Darwinists Never Reflect on the Formation of the Universe
Darwinists never realize that each of the planets, great or small, in the solar system has been specially arranged, with their positions and movements and countless other details, and that even a millimetric deviation in a planet's positions could disrupt all the interdependent balances in the solar system.
Darwinists never understand that the distance between the Earth and the Moon is of the greatest importance to life on Earth, and maintaining of a great many vital balances such as the timing of tides. The slightest change in that distance could give rise to fatal results.
Darwinists never worry that even a 10% reduction in the amount of solar energy reaching the Earth would result in our planet being covered in a layer of ice several meters thick.
Darwinists never realize that were it not for the 23º27' tilt in the Earth's axis, there would be such high temperatures between the Poles and the Equator, preventing the formation of the atmosphere and thus life on Earth.
Blessed be He Who placed constellations in the sky and
He has made night and day subservient to you, and the sun and moon and stars, all subject to His command. There are certainly Signs in that for people who use their intellect.
Darwinists never point out that if atmospheric pressure were just twice what it is, the level of water vapor in the atmosphere would decline. All the land on Earth would turn into desert, and life would be impossible.
Darwinists know that the universe we live in emerged some 15 billion years ago from a single point. But such a great explosion should actually have caused enormous chaos. The atoms or sub-atomic particles should have been scattered randomly all throughout the emptiness of space. But such a thing did not happen. Instead, a highly systematic and organized universe emerged.
Darwinists never realize that the very high energy emitted by a single explosion in the Sun is equivalent to that of a 100-billion-ton bomb of the kind dropped on Hiroshima. But by means of our planet's atmosphere and magnetic field, this radiation reaches the Earth in a highly reduced form.
Darwinists never realize that oxygen is a corrosive element and should normally be expected to oxidize our tissues. In order to prevent this, Allah has created the oxygen in the atmosphere in a neutral form, O2, which does not easily enter into chemical reactions.
Darwinists never question how carbon-based compounds form vastly different organic structures, from the cell membrane to tree bark, from the lens in the eye to deer antlers, and from egg white to snake venom. Carbon makes life possible on Earth and gives rise to exceedingly diverse substances by combining with hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms in different three-dimensional shapes and sequences.
Darwinists never question why, in contrast to all other known liquids, water begins to expand at temperatures below + 4°C, thus enabling ice to float. This attribute was especially created in order to support the life of numerous creatures living in the seas.
Water is 10 billion times more viscous than tar, 1,000 more viscous than glycerol, 100 times more so than olive oil and, 25 times more so than sulphuric acid. Darwinists fail to consider how this viscosity of water is of the greatest importance to the efficient functioning of the system, and that if its viscosity were similar to that of tar, no heart—itself consisting of a large percentage of water—could possibly pump blood.
Darwinists never realize that the universe is not eternal and that it came into being out of nothing with the explosion of a single point of zero volume.
They also never realize that the Big Bang, which led to the formation of the universe, also brought about an order with an extraordinary sensitivity that pervades the whole universe.
Darwinists never realize that under the second law of thermodynamics, all systems left to natural conditions gradually become disordered. For that reason, the universe and everything in it should be moving towards an inevitable end.
Darwinists never appreciate that in the wake of the Big Bang, if the speed of the universe's expansion had been different by just one part in a billion billion (1/1018), the universe would never have emerged at all.
The average distance between the stars in our galaxy is 30 million miles (48,280,000 kilometers). Darwinists never realize that if this distance were just slightly less, the planets' orbits would become destabilized. There is an immaculate creation in the universe.
Darwinists never realize that if the force of gravity were slightly greater, many of the larger stars in the universe would collapse into black holes.
Darwinists never appreciate that the extraordinarily complex sub-atomic particles of just 0.0000001 of the atom's volume act in an extraordinary sensitivity and order.
Darwinists claim that atoms such as phosphorus and carbon combined together as the result of coincidences and organized themselves under the effects of natural phenomena such as lightning, volcanoes, ultraviolet rays and radiation in such a way as to give rise to proteins, cells, fish, cats, rabbits, lions, birds, human beings and all of life. But they fail to realize that these very atoms are devoid of consciousness, intelligence, and life itself.
The density of the universe, the speed at which it expands, the star systems, the features of the galaxies, their forces of gravity, orbits, courses, speeds and the substances they contain—all depend on highly delicate balances and calculations. In the same way, our Earth, the atmosphere that surrounds it, and its ideal structure for human life, are all examples of an extraordinary creation. Yet Darwinists never realize that the slightest variation in these balances would totally disrupt the entire system.
Darwinists never calculate that if the physical and chemical properties of water or the composition or temperature of the Earth's atmosphere were just slightly different to what they actually are, then there would be no clouds. In the absence of clouds, there would be no source of fresh water on Earth.
Darwinists fail to consider the way rain falls at specific levels for the maintenance of life in various regions of the Earth, and the regulation of its form and speed cannot be explained in terms of the theory of evolution.
Darwinists never realize the Solar System revolves around the center of the galaxy at a speed of 720,000 kilometers (447,400 miles) an hour. The Milky Way, containing 200 million stars, travels through space at 950,000 kilometers (590,300 miles) an hour. Due to the flawless equilibrium established by Allah, we live in such a fastmoving and complex system without mishap.
Darwinists never realize that by chance, lifeless, unconscious assemblages of atoms can never give rise to the Earth, the planets, the Solar System, flowers, fruits, trees and the human beings who live in complete harmony with them.
Darwinists never realize that the positions and movements of the many planets, large and small, existing in the universe are not haphazard and that all the balances in the universe have been flawlessly created by Allah.
And He has made everything in the heavens and everything on the Earth subservient to you. It is all from Him. There are certainly Signs in that for people who reflect. (Surat al-Jathiyya, 13)
Darwinists Never Reflect on the Glorious Creation of Man
Darwinists never realize how the feet, whose tissues, veins and muscles are never harmed when we run or stand up and down, could not have come into being by chance.
Darwinists never realize that since neither Internet technology nor even the simplest telephone exchange can form by chance, coincidence cannot account for the far more complex system inside the brain, which requires engineering, information, consciousness, intelligence and technology.
Darwinists, who claim that a succession of coincidences can give rise to a complex organism, never realize that the human body, can function flawlessly only when all its organs are present simultaneously.
Darwinists never realize that it is irrational to claim that the protein thrombin, constantly traveling in the blood but which brings about clotting at only one site in the event of bleeding, could have come into existence through random changes.
Darwinists never realize how it is that stomach acids, powerful enough to dissolve a razor blade, do not harm the stomach itself.
Darwinists never appreciate that cells that come into being by multiplying from a single cell in the womb, gradually diversify to form very different tissues and organs. The human nose, hand and kidney ultimately derive from that same original cell. These cells multiply to the extent necessary and then cease doing so once a complete organ is formed.
Darwinists never realize how during the process of development in the womb, every one out of billions of cells assumes its allotted place. For example, they establish some 120 trillion electrical connections to exchange information among the cells in the brain. They never make a single error in creating this impeccable electronic apparatus.
Darwinists never realize that in reading one sentence, the eyes perform some 100 billion processes. Through the will and mercy of Allah, they possess one of the most perfect systems in the world.
Is it at all possible that the One Who gives life to this vast, dead and dry earth; Who in so doing demonstrates His power by deploying more than three hundred thousand different forms of creation, each of them as remarkable as man; Who further demonstrates in this deployment His all-embracing knowledge by the infinite distinctions and differentiations He makes in the complex intermingling of all of those forms; Who directs the gaze of all His slaves to everlasting bliss by promising them resurrection in all of His heavenly decrees; Who demonstrates the splendor of His Dominion by causing all of His creation to collaborate with one another, to revolve within the circle of His command and His will, to aid one another and be submitted to Him; Who shows the importance He has given to man by creating him as the most comprehensive, the most precious and delicate, the most valued and valuable fruit on the tree of creation by addressing him without intermediary and subjugating all things to him—is it at all possible that so Compassionate and Powerful a One, so Wise and All-Knowing a One, should not bring about resurrection; should not gather His creatures together or be unable to do so; should not restore man to life, or be unable to do so; should not be able to inaugurate His Supreme Court; should not be able to create Heaven and Hell? Nay, indeed, by no means is any of this possible. 36 Bediuzzaman Said Nursi
Darwinists never appreciate that a drop of blood contains some 250 million red blood cells, 400 thousand white blood cells and millions of thrombocytes. A great miracle that produces molecules with these properties and lets them all function together. Allah has flawlessly created blood right down to the finest detail.
Darwinists never realize that to prevent death from loss of blood, more than 20 enzymes all have to be present at the same time to help blood clot. This complexity is incompatible with the mechanism of evolution.
Darwinists never realize who directs the sequence of the 20 varieties of enzymes during the course of blood clotting? Unconscious atoms could never achieve this vital sequencing of their own accord, and the answer to that question can never be found in any Darwinist explanation.
Darwinists never realize why transporter proteins in the blood carry the needs of hundreds of different kinds of cells in the body in the form of packages. This is incompatible with the principle of supposed evolution that an entity acts only in its own interests and will not assist or co-operate with other entities.
Darwinists never realize that blood cells recognize oxygen molecules entering the lungs and carefully separate them out. They then carry these to all the cells of the body, distributing the oxygen according to the cells' needs. Such a selective conscious system could never result from unconscious coincidences.
Darwinists never wonder how blood cell, formed in the bone marrow, can know the human body as well as it does. These cells never carry substances required by the kidneys to the brain instead, and Darwinists cannot account for such precise behavior.
Darwinists never question how the 100 trillions cells in the body, which they claim came into being by chance, are controlled impeccably, or how errors in the cell are resolved, or how its needs are met, its wastes expelled, and how this system operates in such a controlled way as to leave no room for coincidence.
They never consider how a virus, which Darwinists describe as the most primitive living structure, could have learned how to take over, out of billions of cells, the specific elements of the boy's immune system known as antibodies and leukocytes, in order to be able to neutralize the defenses of a body it has never encountered before.
Darwinists never question how a system inside the body, which they maintain came into existence as a result of evolutionary processes, prevents the heat emitted by a muscle's contraction from doing any harm to that muscle. The blood's heat-dispersal mechanism could never come into existence by chance.
Darwinists never realize how it is that different cells in the blood, which they claim came into being by chance, know their own tasks, perform them without making any errors and how they continue discharging their responsibilities uninterruptedly for an entire lifetime.
Darwinists never realize that 2.5 million erythrocytes need to be produced every second in the blood, which they maintain came into existence through unconscious coincidences. Were it not for this, the veins would become blocked due to a decrease in the blood's viscosity. This vital equilibrium could never develop through random processes and phenomena.
Darwinists never question that the human eye forms an image on the retina in less than 1/10 second. The image occupies a space no more than 1 square millimeter (0.00155 square inch) in size. The human eye possesses a mechanism faster and more practical than 64 computers equipped with the latest technology.
Darwinists never realize that bones in the skeletal system are all totally compatible with one another and connected at specific points. Each bone has its own particular function. Thanks to your bones, you are able to walk and run. The skeletal system once again reveals the sublimity of Allah's creative artistry.
Darwinists never question why human beings' two eyes came into being by chance, as they claim, nor how the images produced by these never interfere with each other, nor how they manage to perceive color and in three dimensions.
Darwinists never realize that there are an average of 100 billion neurons in the human brain. Were you to count them one by one, at a rate of one every second, it would take you 3,171 years. If these 100 billion 10-micron neurons were laid out end to end, they would stretch for 1,000 kilometers (621 miles).
Darwinists never realize that there are around 1,000 different scent receptors in the human nose. By way of the magnificent scent perception system in the nose, human beings can detect more than 10,000 smells through combinations of these different receptors.
Darwinists never realize that after a given length of time, sense receptors stop sending the brain signals about substances in contact with the skin. The skin thus gradually grows accustomed to the material touching it. What a great blessing this represents for human beings!
Darwinists never appreciate that though it takes only a few seconds to read a single sentence, if just one of the enzymes in the human body were not to work, that sentence would take 1,500 years to read.
Enzymes are responsible for activating cells and initiating and accelerating reactions, and one enzyme can accelerate a reaction 1010 times—in other words, 10 billion times. But Darwinists never realize that if enzymes did not do their jobs, a great many reactions that keep you alive would have to wait until you had read this sentence. Inactive cells, unaware of one another, would one by one begin to die.
Darwinists never wonder that nerve impulses travel through the body at a speed of approximately 9 kilometers (5.59 miles) a second, thus protecting you against a wide range of dangers.
Darwinists never calculate that there is less than one millionth of a gram of hormones in a liter of blood, despite which hormones have such vitally important functions to perform.
Darwinists never realize that every day, your heart pumps 7,200 liters (1,584 gallons) of blood over a distance of 100,000 kilometers (61,140 miles).
Darwinists never realize that blood passes through the kidneys an average of 300 times a day.
Darwinists never realize that every second you spend reading, your retinas perform 10 billion calculations.
Darwinists never realize that your roughly 5.6 liters (1,232 gallons) of blood course through your body three times every minute and travel around 100,000 kilometers (62,140 miles) every day.
Darwinists never realize that the muscle that enables your eyes to blink is the fastest in the body. Thanks to this muscle, we blink an average of 15,000 times a day.
Darwinists never realize that 5 liters (1.1 gallons) of blood have to travel through the veins that extend to every part of a body of average weight, that if part of this is taken away, 1 liter (0,22 gallon) for instance, it will be more difficult to move the remaining blood, and that if the blood does not fill the veins the fine blood vessels will stick together, blood will cease to flow and the cells will rapidly begin to die, and that cells can only remain without oxygen for one or two minutes.
Darwinists never reflect how in secreting meat digesting acids, the stomach, itself made of flesh, avoids digesting itself and how this is incompatible with the claim of chance.
Darwinists never realize that the 500 highly complex functions carried out in a single liver cell, most of them in a flawless succession in a matter of milliseconds, cannot be replicated even under laboratory conditions. It is impossible for these functions to have come about by chance.
We created man from a mingled drop to test him, and We made him hearing and seeing.
Allah brought you out of your mothers' wombs knowing nothing at all, and gave you hearing, sight and hearts so that perhaps you would show thanks.
Darwinists never account for how surplus, flawed or diseased cells in the body destroy themselves. Some dead cells are not cleared away since they can still be of use. These macrophage cells decide which dead cells to eliminate and which to leave, just as if they were conscious entities.
Darwinists never account for how the pituitary gland, a small piece of tissue no larger than a chickpea, controls all the hormones in our bodies and the hormonal system itself.
Darwinists do not understand how growth hormone secreted by the pituitary gland controls the division of trillions of cells in a perfect order, or how this tiny gland decides at what stage the body and its organs should stop growing.
Darwinists don't understand how mother's milk meets all the newborn's needs. Baby food manufacturers are still unable to manufacture an equivalent to mother's milk.
Darwinists never realize how the receptor cells in the hypothalamus monitor the body's level of water 24 hours a day, and take the necessary precautions when they determine any excess or deficiency.
In claiming that the eye evolved in stages, Darwinists never realize that the eye is irreducibly complex and that it cannot function unless all its 40 main components are all present and working in harmony together. By itself, this organ totally undermines the theory of evolution.
Darwinists never admit that the human eye provides an image far superior to and clearer than that of the most advanced cameras.
Darwinists never realize that every neuron in the human brain has about 1,000 to 10,000 synapses, or connections with other cells. There are some 1 quadrillion synapses in the brain, enabling some 1,000,000,000,000,000 acts of communication. It is impossible for all this complexity to have come about by chance.
Darwinists never realize that while the fastest data processing man-made computers perform 109 operations per second, the human brain—which they claim came into existence by chance—can perform 1015 operations a second.
Darwinists never admit that it is absolutely impossible for chance to organize nerve cells in such a way as to establish an astonishing communications network.
Darwinists never examine how the cells of the immune system produce substances known as antibodies against microbes or other foreign bodies known as antigens, which either try to kill them or else prevent them from reproducing. The most important feature of these antibodies is their ability to distinguish between hundreds of thousands of different microbes and prepare themselves to destroy them.
Darwinists never consider that some antibodies are even able to recognize artificial antigens produced in the laboratory and then injected into the human body.
Darwinists never realize that antibodies immediately identify and produce the most effective weapon to be used against a given foreign body.
Darwinists never consider that the human kidneys are around 10 centimeters (3.937 of an inch) in length and weigh 100 grams (0.220 of a pound) and contain more than 1 million micro-purification plants. In these plants, the blood that carries everything essential for our survival is constantly cleansed and purified. Not even the giant machines built by human beings can replicate the kidney's functions.
Darwinists never understand how, when cells inside the human body need to be manufactured or need to be destroyed, these functions are performed with perfect timing and in a perfect order, completely beyond our will or knowledge.
Darwinists never appreciate though the enzymes, which carry electrons through the fluid between the cells, are not conscious, were they to scatter the messages they carry randomly rather than to their correct destinations, the resulting chaos in the brain would totally demolish the sensory system, severing all links with the outside world.
Darwinists never discuss the way that bone cells known as osteoclasts alter the length and shape of bones and shrinknotches on the bone surface. While the osteoclast removes bone, osteoblast cells begin manufacturing bone in such a way as to maintain the skeleton. All these actions take place in perfect order in every bone in the body.
Darwinists never realize that the bone cells, which they maintain came into being through unconscious coincidences, form the hardness, length, shape, protrusions and interfaces of every bone in the body, and do so without ever making an error.
Darwinists never realize that human development takes place according to specific limits. When a particular height has been reached and the hands and feet attain their mature size, how it is possible that they decide to stop growing any more?
Darwinists never appreciate how molecules invisible to the human eye work constantly to keep us alive.
Darwinists never realize that the human DNA molecule contains enough information to fill millions of encyclopedia pages, yet is composed of unconscious atoms such as phosphorus, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen.
Darwinists never realize that the body produces some 260 to 400 billion blood cells every day. This production, which takes place in the bone marrow, depends on the differing division abilities of a special cell known as the stem cell.
Darwinists claim that blood came into being by chance, yet they never admit that nothing resembling it can be produced in even the most advanced laboratories.
Darwinists seldom appreciate that if the very first animal's blood did not clot, then blood loss from the slightest injury could result in death.
Darwinists never understand how although the protein thrombin causes blood to clot and travels within the blood, it does not cause clotting in the vessels it passes through.
Darwinists never appreciate that the human foot requires 54 different muscles working together simultaneously in order to take a single step.
Darwinists never appreciate that the air we all breathe contains many harmful substances and germs, but that the micro-hairs in our nasal passages protect us against most of them.
Darwinists never explain how, though the 200 or so different types of cell in the body possess basically the same mechanisms, they have such very different tasks. For example, a liver cell carries out 500 different chemical processes in a matter of milliseconds (one thousandth of a second), and a heart cell produces electricity for our entire lifetime.
Darwinists never realize that even when adults are asleep, their hearts are able to pump 340 liters (74 gallons) of blood every hour.
Darwinists never realize how the 5 to 6 liters (1.1 gallons) of blood in the human body represents some 7 to 8% of body weight. If its red blood cells were laid out end to end, they would form a line almost 100,000 kilometers (62,140 miles) long, enough to stretch twice around the Earth.
Darwinists never reflect on how stem cells comprise just one of the ten thousand kinds of cells manufactured in bone marrow. Though these cells look no different from any other cells, they have the sublime ability to grow in to different types of cell according to the body's needs, giving rise to new cells that replace damaged ones inside the body.
Darwinists never consider how the human hand that enables them to perform countless actions—from drinking to driving a car, from writing to sewing—has been equipped with 27 bones and a perfect system of muscles and nerves that controls them. Human beings open and close their hands at least 25 million times during their lives, and it is impossible for such a mechanism to be replicated artificially.
Darwinists never appreciate that the heart pumps blood constantly, from birth to death. This pump began working by using its own electrical system to meet our bodies' needs, and in one hour, it produces enough energy to lift an average-size car one meter off the ground.
O man! What has deluded you in respect of your Noble Lord?
He Who created you and formed you and proportioned you.
Recite: In the Name of your Lord Who created, created man from clots of blood.
Darwinists never recognize how the heart starts beating suddenly while a person is still a fetus in its mother's womb. From that moment, it causes blood to flow through the body by constantly expanding and contracting. It pumps blood at every moment of our lives, without our being aware of it, and beyond our conscious control.
Darwinists never appreciate that the double-layered membrane around the heart lets it function comfortably and protects it against blows. Thanks to the viscous fluid between these two layers, the heart is able to expand and contract for a whole lifetime.
Darwinists never realize that not even a single one of the components that make up the heart can have arisen spontaneously. No matter what perfect features it may possess, a heart with no circulatory system or blood to pump will serve no purpose at all. According to their own Darwinist logic, an organ with no function should disappear, and no organ like the heart with all its complex features could have ever come into existence by chance.
Darwinists never recall that the heart requires an electrical impulse in order to contract, that the cells permitting those contractions will not work without electricity, yet the heart, a mere piece of muscle, is able to produce the required electricity.
Darwinists never explain how the protein keratin can produce structures such as hair and nails, with completely different properties, over the course of a lifetime, without ever making a mistake.
In maintaining that collagen, a protein that produces both smooth elastic skin and hard, tough bones came into being by chance, Darwinists never realize that this protein occurs in just those regions where it is needed, in a literally intelligent manner, producing skin in some locations and bone in others.
Darwinists never realize how the brain, which they maintain emerged by chance, functions without interruption, and with no nerves becoming tangled.
Darwinists never realize how atoms, which they maintain behave in a random manner, come to constitute the tear gland.
Darwinists never stop to wonder how the eyebrows, which they maintain came into being through unconscious processes, decide to stop growing after reaching a specific length.
Darwinists never realize how the body, which they maintain came into being by chance, formed a brain, eyes, a skeletal system and joints; and cells possessing a nucleus, mitochondria and DNA.
Darwinists may write books about anatomy and employ frequent Latin terminology, but are still unable to explain how these cells came together in such an ordered manner.
Darwinists never realize that while various cells in the stomach secrete acids to break down foodstuffs, other cells alongside them secrete sticky mucus which coats the surface of the stomach, shielding it against those acids and preventing enzymes from damaging it.
Darwinists never appreciate that the stomach acids, powerful enough to dissolve a razorblade, could destroy the stomach in a very short time. For this reason, stomach acids and the mucus to protect the stomach against them must have co-existed together from the very beginning.
The empty stomach contains an enzyme known as pepsinogen which has no digestive properties. But with the arrival of foodstuffs, stomach cells begin producing hydrochloric acid (HCL), which immediately alters the structure of the pepsinogen in the stomach, converting it into a very powerful enzyme known as pepsin. This immediately breaks down the foodstuffs in the stomach. It is totally impossible for a fluid that is completely harmless when the stomach is empty, but which turns into a powerful destructive agent when the stomach is full, to have come into being by chance.
Darwinists never admit that a membrane known as the periton in the outer tissue of the stomach protects it from friction caused by rubbing against the intestine as it carries out its digestive functions. The slippery fluid secreted by this membrane works as a kind of external lubricant for the stomach and intestines, protecting these organs from friction as they rub against one another.
Darwinists never realize that a group of special cells in one small part of the small intestine are charged with trapping Vitamin B12. Throughout the course of our lives, they distinguish between Vitamin B12 and trillions of other molecules inside the body. They trap the B12 and lets it enter the bloodstream and reach the bone marrow for the production of blood. How can intestinal cells realize the importance of the Vitamin B12 they transport? How do they differentiate between this and trillions of other molecules?
Darwinists never understand how the liver knows that the stomach does not dissolve fats. It produces the special secretion known as bile when fatty foods reach the intestine, at exactly the right time and the right location.
Darwinists never realize that melanin, which gives the eye its color, provides extra protection by filtering out various spectra of light that would damage the retina, nor how melanin decided to do this.
Mankind! Worship your Lord, Who created you and those before you,
O Man! You are toiling laboriously towards your Lord but meet Him you will!
32. Said Nursi, The Words, The 24th Word.
33. Said Nursi, The Words, 714.
34.Said Nursi, The Words, The 29th Word.
35. Said Nursi, The Words, The 22nd Word.
36. Said Nursi, The Words, The 10th Word.
37. Stephen Jay Gould, Life's Grandeur, Vintage, London, 1996, p. 220.
38. Dr. Isaac Asimov, "In the game of energy and thermodynamics you can't even break even," Smithsonian Institute Journal, June 1970, p. 10.
39. L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, "The Genetics of Human Populations," Scientific American, Vol. 231, September, 1974, p. 85, http://www.icr.org/index.php?module=articles&action=view&ID=74