Allah has not given you access to the Unseen. But He chooses those of His messengers whom He wills. So believe in Allah and His messengers.
(Surah Al 'Imran: 179)
Our Prophet's (saas) Knowledge of the Unseen
Only Allah knows the Unseen, defined as what happened in the past and what will happen in the future:
The keys of the Unseen are in His possession. No one knows them but Him. He knows everything in the land and sea. No leaf falls without His knowing it. There is no seed in the darkness of the soil and nothing moist or dry that is not in a Clear Book. (Surat al-An'am: 59)
Allah created time and taught the concept to human beings; however, He exists apart from it. All knowledge is hidden and preserved in Allah's presence; everything that happens anywhere in creation is contained in His knowledge and is under His control. He knows the secret of everything. Certainly it was a miracle that our Prophet (saas) knew the Unseen to the extent that the Lord willed:
He is the Knower of the Unseen and does not divulge His Unseen to anyone – except a Messenger with whom He is well pleased, and then He posts sentinels before him and behind him. (Surat al-Jinn: 26-27)
One of these chosen messengers was our prophet Muhammad (saas); another one was the Prophet Joseph (as). While in prison, The Prophet Joseph (as) told two friends about Allah's existence:
He said: "No meal to feed you will arrive before I have informed you what they [your dreams] mean. That is part of what my Lord taught me. For I have left the religion of a people who clearly have no belief in Allah and do not believe in the world to come. (Surah Yusuf: 37)
This miracle of knowledge was supplemented by the knowledge of dream interpretation. According to Allah's will, the Prophet Joseph (as) saw some future events. The Prophet Jesus (as) also had this type of knowledge:
… as a Messenger to the tribe of Israel, (who will declare): "I have brought you a Sign from your Lord. I will create the shape of a bird out of clay for you, breathe into it, and it will be a bird by Allah's permission. I will heal the blind and the leper, and bring the dead to life, by Allah's permission. I will tell you what you eat and what you store up in your homes. There is a Sign for you in that if you are believers. (Surah Al 'Imran: 49)
As Allah states in the above verse, the Prophet Jesus (as) knew what people had eaten and what they were secretly storing. Allah states in the Qur'an that the Prophet Jesus (as) announced that a prophet named Ahmad would come after him (Surat as-Saff: 6). The Lord told our Prophet (saas) many secret things, among them events of the past and the future:
This is news of the Unseen that We reveal to you. You were not with them [Joseph's brothers] when they decided what to do and devised their scheme. (Surah Yusuf: 102)
Our Prophet (saas) did not know of these hidden things; rather, he only relayed the knowledge of the Unseen, which pointed to past and future events, to the extent that Allah willed. This was yet another miracle that the Lord bestowed upon him, and yet another proof that he was a true prophet. In addition to informing us of this, Allah also states his humility and submission:
Say: "I possess no power to help or harm myself, except as Allah wills. If I had had knowledge of the Unseen, I would have sought to gain much good and no evil would have touched me. I am only a warner and a bringer of good news to people who believe." (Surat al-A'raf: 188)
The Prophet Muhammad (saas) received such knowledge from the Qur'an and from the special revelations given to him. Allah gave knowledge about many things belonging to the Unseen that no one else could know. This enabled him to predict the good news of victory to Muslims in difficult situations and thus to encourage them. And all that he predicted came true, one after the other.
Our Prophet (saas) announced 1,400 years ago many things that have happened during our own times. Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and others agree that this knowledge concerning the Unseen related in the hadiths is true. Thus, they have already occurred or will occur in the future. People are witnesses to these miracles.
The Unseen: Our Prophet's (saas) Miracle
Ever since he began to proclaim the Qur'an, unbelievers accused our Prophet (saas) of lying. They doubted whatever he said to them and did not want to believe him. But it was clear from just looking at his life and his face that he was an honest and trustworthy man. Throughout his life, everyone called him al-Amin (the Trustworthy); many of them also called him a liar so that they would not have to follow the true path to which he was calling them.
Those people who made one cruel accusation after another ignored the fact that a person cannot lie every moment of his life and live according to those lies. Besides, our Prophet (saas) prayed day and night, was very patient, had a superior moral character, and was a blessing to the world. He was more aware than those around him, went into battle with great courage, and even while fighting in the front lines would speak about divine truths.
Our Prophet (saas) lived in the best possible way and was always an example for believers. He taught people to give alms and gave everything away he owned to win Allah's approval. He taught patience, self-sacrifice, true love and friendship, and lived these fine moral qualities perfectly. He urged people to be merciful and forgiving, and behaved in just this manner throughout his life. When the unbelievers accused our Prophet (saas), they should have thought about these things:
A person cannot lie without ceasing for his whole life. A person cannot live in harmony with thousands of consistent verses and lie throughout his life while being devoted to those same verses. Why would a person establish such a pattern? Why would he endanger his own life to tell others about the world to come and show them the right path? Would it be possible for such lies to be so meaningful? Would it be possible for everything he said to be so perfectly literary and contain some mathematical codes? Could everything he said for twenty-three years be so literary, mathematical, and in harmony with science; so perfectly meaningful, giving answers to all people's questions, and containing all of the rules needed for a harmonious social life? Certainly a liar could not avoid one day being caught in a lie. However, everything our Prophet (saas) said came true, as many Muslims and non-Muslims witnessed.
Certainly, the miracles given to all of the prophets were important. But many people witnessed some of our Prophet's (saas) miracles, and this makes him different from the other prophets. For example, when the Prophet Jesus (as) raised someone from the dead or cured a disease, only those present saw the miracle; only Pharaoh and the Israelites saw the Prophet Moses's (as) miracles. But when our Prophet (saas) said that the believers would go to war and be victorious, all of the people saw that both the war and the victory occurred. Thousands of people witnessed these miracles.
The Byzanitnes' Victory
At the beginning of Surat al-Rum, Allah says that the Byzantine Empire suffered a defeat but that it would soon be victorious again:
Alif, Lam, Mim. have been defeated in the lowest land, but after their defeat they will be victorious within three to nine years. The affair is Allah's from beginning to end. On that day, the believers will rejoice. (Surat al-Rum: 1-4)
In addition to the Persians, the Avars, Slavs, and Lombards were also threating Byzantium. The Avars held some of Constantinople's outskirts and, in order to pay the army, Emperor Heraclius had the churches' gold, silver, and other adornments, as well as bronze statues, melted down to produce new coins. Many governors rebelled, and it came to the point where the empire was about to be torn apart. The Persians invaded Byzantine-held Mesopotamia and went on to occupy Cilicia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Armenia. 60
In short, everyone was waiting for Byzantine Empire to collapse. But at this very time, Surat al-Rum was revealed and proclaimed that the Byzantines would be victorious before nine years had passed. The unbelievers thought that this would never happen. But it did, for in 622 Heraclius invaded Armenia and defeated the Persians in several battles. 61 In December 627, both sides fought a huge battle near the ruins of Nineveh (fifty kilometres east of the River Tigris). Here, the Byzantines defeated the Persians and, some months later, forced them to sign a treaty that required them to restore Byzantium's lost territory to it.62The Byzantine victory was complete when Jerusalem was returned and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre once again came under Christian control.63 So, the victory that Allah had revealed and our Prophet (saas) had proclaimed occurred miraculously, as Allah says in the verse, within three to nine years.
These verses are also miraculous because the facts of the area's geography could not have been known at that time. For example, Allah says in the third verse that the Byzantines were defeated at the lowest region of Earth. This Arabic expression adna al-ard is interpreted as "a nearby place" in many translations. However, this is a figurative interpretation. Adna, derived from dani (low), means "the lowest"; ard means "the world." Therefore, adna al-ard means "the lowest place on Earth."
Some Qur'anic interpreters, bearing in mind that the area is close to the Arabs, prefer to use "nearest." But the word's real meaning relates to a major geological fact: the world's lowest place is the Dead Sea, which is 399 meters below sea level. 64 The most difficult thing about this defeat was, as we said, the loss of Jerusalem, the symbol of Christianity located near the Dead Sea. Calculating the Dead Sea's elevation is possible only with modern measuring devices. Thus, our Prophet (saas) could not have known this fact. This knowledge is another proof that the Qur'an is Allah's word and that He granted a great miracle to our Prophet (saas).
Allah has confirmed His Messenger's vision with truth: "You will enter the Masjid al-Haram in safety, Allah willing, shaving your heads and cutting your hair without any fear." He knew what you did not know and ordained, in place of this, an imminent victory. (Surat al-Fath: 27)
In Mecca, our Prophet (saas) dreamed that he saw believers going safely into the Masjid al-Haram and circumambulating the Ka'bah. He announced this good news to the believers, for those who had moved from Mecca to Madinah with him could not, at that time, return to Mecca.
As a help and support to him, Allah revealed Surat al-Fath 27, in which He said that the dream was true and that, if He willed, the believers could enter Mecca. Indeed, a while later and as it was predicted in the verse, the Muslims entered the Masjid al-Haram after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah and the subsequent capture of Mecca. In this way, Allah demonstrated that the good news He inspired in our Prophet (saas) was true.
Al-Bukhari tells this story from Abu Musa about Mecca's fall:
However, if we look at Surat al-Fath 27, we see that another city will fall before Mecca. According to the Qur'an, Muslims first took Khaybar's castle, which had been a Jewish stronghold, and then took Mecca. Tafsir al-Jalalayn explains this verse as follows:
Eight years after leaving it, our Prophet (saas) returned to Mecca to conquer it. When he gave this good news to the believers, the situation was not at all favorable. In fact, the Meccans seemed determined not to allow the believers in, because they still doubted our Prophet's (saas) words. But he trusted in Allah, ignored what the people might say, and related it to thousands of people who witnessed this miracle.
Other news from the unseen revealed by our Prophet (saas)
Abu Dharr reported that the Messenger of Allah (saas) said: "You will soon conquer Egypt, and that is a land in which the qirat 67 is named. So when you conquer it, treat its inhabitants well." 68 When he announced this good news, Egypt was still governed by the Byzantines. In addition, the Muslims were not yet very strong. But this prediction came true during Umar's (ra) caliphate, when Amr ibn al-As conquered it in 641.69
Conquering the lands held by Byzantium and Persia
Kisra was the word used for the ancient Persian kings, and Qaysar was the designation of the Byzantine emperor. When our Prophet (saas) announced this good news, the Muslims were not in a position, as regards their military strength and economic and political organization, to achieve such a major victory. Besides, at that time, Persia and Byzantium were the region's strongest states. However, during Umar's (ca) caliphate, Byzantine was defeated and no other Kisra emerged.
Before the death of Heraclius, the Caesar of the time, in 641, his treasury passed into Muslims' hands as the Muslim armies began to conquer Byzantium's major centers during the reigns of the four rightly guided caliphs. For example, under Abu Bakr (ra), Jordan, Palestine, Damascus, Jerusalem, Syria, Egypt, and other lands were taken.
In 1453, the Ottoman sultan Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Mehmed the Conqueror) conquered Constantinople and, following Byzantium's fall, the title of Qaysar was no longer used. Thus, the Prophet's (saas) predictions turned out to be true.
Our Prophet's (saas) announcement of Kisra's death
Throughout his life, our Prophet (saas) called rulers and administrators to Islam by sending messengers and letters to them. Historical sources tell us that some of them heeded the call immediately and that others refused to do so and allied themselves with his enemies. Our Prophet (saas) invited Perviz ibn Hurmuz, the kisra at that time, by sending Abdullah ibn Hudhayfah to him as a messenger. But Ibn Hurmuz refused to embrace Islam and, in fact, displayed hostility toward the Muslims. He even went so far as to send two messengers to tell the Muslims to submit to him.
The ambassadors then returned to Yemen and described what had happened. Badhan was impressed and said: "We will see what happens next. If what he said is true, then he is the Prophet whom Allah has sent." 74 He then turned to his men and asked what they thought of our Prophet (saas). The ambassadors, who had been greatly impressed by him, said: "We never saw a ruler more majestic, more fearless, and less guarded than him. He walked humbly among the people."
Our Prophet (saas) knew of events that no one else knew about
Allah tells us about a miraculous event involving one of the Prophet's (saas) wives. Once, he told a secret to one of them, and one of them told the secret to someone else. After Allah told him about this, he told that particular wife that he knew what she had done. When she asked who had told him, he replied that Allah had informed him:
The Prophet confided a certain matter to one of his wives. But when she divulged it [to other wives], Allah disclosed that to him. So, he communicated part of it and withheld part of it. When he told her of it, she asked: "Who told you of this?" He replied: "The All-Knowing and All-Aware informed me of it." (Surat al-Tahrim: 3)
By Allah's grace, our Prophet (saas) had great knowledge, for Allah told him things that no other person could know. The incident related above was just one of many miracles. Elsewhere, Allah informs our Prophet (saas) of people's hidden sides, as well as their secret thoughts and actions, and of how he is to act and what he is to say:
Then He sent down to you, after the distress, security and a restful sleep overtaking a group of you, whereas another group became prey to anxious thoughts, thinking other than the truth about Allah – thoughts belonging to the Time of Ignorance – asking: "Do we have any say in the affair at all?' Say: "The affair belongs entirely to Allah." They are concealing things inside themselves that they do not disclose to you, saying: "If we had only had a say in the affair, none of us would have been killed here in this place." Tell [them]: "Even if you had been inside your homes, those people for whom killing was decreed would have gone out to their place of death," so that Allah might test what is in your breasts and purge what is in your hearts. Allah knows the contents of your hearts. (Surah Al 'Imran: 154)
They have the word "obedience!" on their tongues, but when they leave your presence a group of them spend the night plotting to do other than what you say. Allah is recording their nocturnal plotting. So let them be and put your trust in Allah. Allah suffices as a Guardian. (Surat al-Nisa': 81)
Those Arabs who remained behind will say to you: "Our wealth and families kept us occupied, so ask forgiveness for us." They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Ask [them]: "Who can control Allah for you in any way, whether He wills harm or benefit for you?" Allah is aware of what you do. (Surat al-Fath: 11)
As for those who have set up a mosque, causing harm and out of unbelief, to create division between the believers and in readiness for those who previously made war on Allah and His Messenger, they will swear: "We only desired the best." But Allah bears witness that they are truly liars. Do not ever stand in it. A mosque founded on fear of [and respect for] Allah from the first day has a greater right for you to stand in it. In it there are people who love to purify themselves. Allah loves those who purify themselves. (Surat al-Tawba: 107-08)
Allah says in the Qur'an that He revealed knowledge of the Unseen to our Prophet (saas), such as the hypocrites' lies, traps, and hidden true intentions. The hypocrites presented themselves in the best possible light, but, by Allah's will, our Prophet (saas) could recognize their real character from their faces. This was indeed a great miracle. No one who sees a person performing many acts of worship, acting and speaking like a Muslim, calling himself as a Muslim, and even going to war alongside our Prophet (saas) could ever realize that such a person is actually a hypocrite. The Companions tell stories of how he could recognize these people through what Allah told him. Allah reveals this ability in the Qur'an:
If We willed, We would show them to you and you would know them by their mark and ambivalent speech. Allah knows your actions. (Surah Muhammad: 30)
Our Prophet (saas) gave answers before anyone asked the questions
The hadiths contain hundreds of such examples. For example, our Prophet (saas) answered a question that Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith (ra) had been pondering:
One hadith about Wabisa (ra) shows how our Prophet (saas) could understand and answer a person's silent question:
Wabisah ibn Ma`bad said: I came to the Messenger of Allah, and he said: "You have come to ask about devoutness (birr)?" I replied: "Yes." He said: "Ask your heart for a judgment. Devoutness is that toward which the self is tranquil and toward which the heart is tranquil. Impiety (ithm) is that which becomes agitated in the self and it goes agitatedly to and fro in the breast even though people repeatedly give you a judgment [as to a matter's permissibility]." 83
The hadiths also tell us that he knew a person's question before it was even asked. For example:
All of the above examples show that our Prophet (saas), by Allah's will, performed many miracles. With this excellent moral character, consciousness of Allah, and deep faith, sincerity, and trust in Him, he was an example to all Muslims. Through these miracles, he strengthened and encouraged the believers.
Our Prophet (saas) predicted his own death
Another of our blessed Prophet's (saas) miracles was that all of his predictions came true (or will come true) in time. One of the events he predicted was his own death.
Narrated 'Uqbah ibn 'Amir (ra):
In another hadith, our Prophet (saas) reveals that he is going to die:
Our Prophet (saas) gave many details about his death, and this greatly increased and deepened the believers' faith. For example:
Ibn Hanbal and al-Bayhaqi relate from Ibn Abbas (ra):
In some of the hadiths, he revealed where he would die:
Our Prophet (saas) announced the Companion's martyrdom
As a miracle from Allah, our Prophet (saas) announced when his Companions would die long before they did so. In these hadiths, he said that some would be martyred and revealed where they would die. Those Muslims who saw these predictions fulfilled saw the outcome as joyous. Every one of these hadiths is a miracle that Allah granted to our Prophet (saas), whom He chose and exalted above all worlds:
Umar's (ra) martyrdom
Narrated Anas ibn Malik: The Prophet (saas) once climbed Uhud mountain with Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman. The mountain shook. The Prophet said (to the mountain):
"Be firm, Uhud! For on you there are no more than a Prophet, a Siddiq, two martyrs." 92
The books of the Sunnah tell us that one day the Prophet (saas) was sitting at the well of `Aris, with Abu Musa al-Ash`ari acting as his gatekeeper. Abu Bakr al-Siddiq came and asked permission to see him, and the Messenger (saas) said: "Let him in, and give him the glad tidings of Paradise." Then `Umar came, and he said: "Let him in, and give him the glad tidings of Paradise." Then `Uthman came, and he said: "Let him in, and give him the glad tidings of Paradise because of an affliction that will befall him." (Reported by al-Bukhari, Muslim, and al-Tirmidhi, Jami` al-Usul, 8/562, no. 6372.)
Uthman's (ra) martyrdom
Ibn 'Adi and Ibn 'Asakir narrated from Anas, who said: "The Messenger of Allah said: "O Uthman, you will be given the caliphate after me, but the hypocrites will want you to renounce it. Do not renounce, it but fast on that day so that you break your fast with me." 93
Al-Tabarani and al-Bayhaqi narrated from Zayd ibn Arqam, who said: The Prophet (saas) sent me out, saying: "Go and see Abu Bakr. You will find him sitting inside his house wrapped up in his cloak with his legs drawn up. Give him the glad tidings of the Garden. Then go to the mountain until you find 'Umar riding a donkey and his tall frame looming in the distance. Give him the glad tidings of the Garden. Then go to 'Uthman, whom you will find in the market selling and buying, and give him the glad tidings of the Garden after a harrowing ordeal." I went and found them as the Messenger of Allah had said, and I told them. 94
Al-Tabarani narrated from Zayd ibn Thabit, who said that he heard the Prophet (saas) say: "Uthman passed by me while one of the angels was with me, and the latter said: 'This is a martyr whose people will kill him. We are shy of him.'" 95
Ali's (ra) martyrdom
Hussain's (ra) martyrdom
All of these predictions came true, and many sincere Muslims who shouldered the great responsibility of spreading Islam also died as martyrs. As a result, more of his predictions came true. Every one of these is a miracle that Allah bestowed upon his blessed messenger, Muhammad (saas), from the Unseen.
Signs of the End Times
The world will experience the End Times before the Day of Judgment. Our Prophet (saas) told us many things about this time, and the fact that many of them are happening now is a miracle. Muhammad (saas) detailed events that would happen 1,400 years after his death as if he had actually seen them. We present a partial list below:
The Iran-Iraq War
The hadiths tell of a major war that will happen in the End Times:
These months coincide with the dates of the developing stages of the Iran-Iraq War.
There will be tumult in Shawwal…
Talks of war in Dhu al-Qa`dah (the eleventh Islamic month), and the outbreak of war in Dhu al-Hijjah (the twelfth month)...
In another hadith, the details of this war are given:
On the right you see some of the news about Iran-Iraq war.
This hadith may draw attention to the outbreak of a racial dispute that will cause both sides to come down to the (Iranian) plain and wage war.
Allah will not give victory to any one of the armies...
The Iran-Iraq war lasted for eight years and, despite many thousands of casualties, neither side could claim a decisive victory.
The Occupation of Afghanistan
Pity poor Taliqan [a region in Afghanistan]. At that place are treasures of Allah, but these are not of gold and silver. (Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi `Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-Zaman, 59.)
This hadith may be an indication of Afghanistan's occupation during the Last Days. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan took place in 1979 (1400, according to the Islamic calendar).
In addition, this hadith draws attention to Afghanistan's material riches. Today, large oil deposits, iron basins, and coal mines have been detected there and await commercial exploitation.
Damming the Euphrates
Soon the river Euphrates will disclose the treasure [the mountain] of gold. So, whoever will be present at that time should not take anything of it. (Sahih al-Bukhari.)
Other hadiths reveal important information on this subject:
The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: "The Hour will not come to pass before the river Euphrates dries up to unveil the mountain of gold, for which people will fight. Ninety-nine out of 100 will die [in the fighting], and every man among them will say: 'Perhaps I may be the only one to remain alive.'" (Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim.)
The Prophet (saas) said: "The Euphrates reveals the treasures within itself. Whoever sees it should not take anything from it." (Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan, 28.)
Damming the flow of water in the Euphrates and the emergence of a treasure as valuable as gold are both mentioned in many hadith collections.
Let's examine some important statements revealed in the hadiths one by one:
The Messenger of Allah (saas) said: "The Hour will not come to pass before the river Euphrates dries up and unveils the mountain of gold." (Sahih Muslim.)
(1)… the river Euphrates dries up …
As-Suyuti mentions this hadith as "the stopping of water." The Keban dam, built in 1975, has accomplished this.
(2)… unveils the mountain of gold…
The surrounding land has become as valuable as gold for various reasons, for the Keban dam has enabled electricity production and higher soil fertility through irrigation and transport facilities. The Keban and other dams lining the Euphrates resemble a concrete mountain, and wealth as valuable as gold comes out of it. Therefore, they take on the properties of "the golden mountain." (Allah knows the truth.)
Our Prophet (saas) also gave other information about this time, which can be found in Harun Yahya's The Signs of the Second Coming of Jesus, The End Times and the Mahdi, Signs of The Last Day, and other books. Among these signs are the following: lunar and solar eclipses during Ramadan, the rise of a comet, storming the Ka'bah and the subsequent bloodshed, sighting a flare in the east, a sign coming out of the Sun, the beginning of widespread slaughter, the killing of the rulers of Damascus and Egypt, the enslavement of the Egyptians, the destruction of great cities, the rebuilding of ruined places, the fourth peace and Arab-Israeli peace agreement, the destitution of the Iraqi people, the burning of Baghdad, an embargo against Iraq and Damascus, the restructuring of Iraq, confusion and disorder in Damascus as well as in Iraq and Arabia, conflict between Muslims and Jews, the killing of innocent children, pervasive corruption, religious prohibitions gaining acceptance, open denial of Allah, increasing numbers of earthquakes, the collapse of moral values, an increase in urbanization, the greening of deserts, and the appearance of false messiahs.
These are only a few of the signs. Since our Prophet's (saas) death, they have been observed at various times and in different places. However, since 1400 AH, all of them have occurred in the same period one after another. This means that another of his predictions has come true:
59. "Heraclius," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heraclius.
60. Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society (USA: Stanford University Press, 1997), 287-99.
61. "Heraclius 610-641," http://fstav.freeservers.com/emperors/heraclius.html.
62. Treadgold, A History, 287-99.
63. http://web.genie.it/utenti/i/inanna/livello2-i/mediterraneo-1-i.htm; http://impearls.blogspot.com/2003_12_07_impearls_archive.html; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heraclius.
64. Dead Sea," World Book Encyclopedia, 2003. Contributor: Bernard Reich, Ph.D., Professor of Political Science and International Affairs, George Washington University.
66. Tafsir al-Jalalayn (Istanbul: Faith Enes Publishing, 1997), 3:1843.
67. The "people of knowledge" say that the qirat is a subdivision of a dinar or a dirham.
69. "The Arab Conquest of Egypt," www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-early-Arab-Egypt.
71. "Chosroes II, Siroes, and Prophet Muhammad (628 CE)," www.cyberistan.org/islamic/chosroes.html.
72. Tafsir of Imam al-Tabari
76. Salih Suruc, Kainatin Efendisi Peygamberimizin Hayatı (The Life of the Prophet [saas]) (Istanbul: Yeni Asya Publications, 1998), 225.
77. "Chosroes II, Siroes, and Prophet Muhammad (628 CE)," www.cyberistan.org/islamic/chosroes.html.
78. Suruc, Kainatın Efendisi Peygamberimizin Hayatı, 225
79. As-Suyuti, Tahdhib al-Khasa'is, 696-700.
80. Ibid., 688-89.
81. Ibid., 689-91.
82. Ibn al-Harith; Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, al-Matalib al-Aliyah
83. A good sound hadith narrated in the two Musnads of the Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal and ad-Darimi.
84. Ibid., 690.
85. As-Suyuti, Tahdhib al-Khasa'is, 1115.
87. Al-Tabari, Ahmad, Ibn Sa'd, al-Baghawi, and Ibn Mandah
88. Ibid., 1120.
89. Ibn Hanbal and al-Bayhaqi
90. Ibid., 1120.
91. Ibid., 1121.
93. Narrated from Anas by Ibn 'Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq
94. Zayd ibn Arqam narrated it, and it is transmitted by at-Tabarani in al-Awsat, al-Bayhaqi in Dala'il al-Nubuwwah, and al-Dhahabi in the Siyar
95. Zayd ibn Thabit narrated it, and it is transmitted by al-Tabarani in al-Kabir, 5:159
96. Ahmad in his Musnad, al-Nasa'i in as-Sunan al-Kubra, Abu Nu'aym's Dala'il an-Nubuwwah, and al-Hakim
97. At-Tabarani in al-Kabir and alAwsat
98. Al-Hakim, 3:139=1990 ed 3:155
99. Narrated from Umm Salamah by Ibn Abi 'Asim in Al-Ahad wa al-Mathani, al-Tabarani in al-Kabir, and al-Hakim
100. Narrated from Suhaym, from Anas ibn Malik by Abu Nu`aym in the Dala'il and al-Baghawi and Ibn as-Sakan in their Companion compendiums. Cf. Ibn Hajar, Isabah; al-Bukhari, Al-Tarikh al-Kabir; Al-Isti'ab; Al-Khasa'is al-Kubra
101. Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Rasul Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat al-Sa'ah, 166.
102. Ibid., 179.