Manifestations of Allah as the All-Merciful and Most Merciful in the Creation of the World
Our solar system contains Earth and eight other planets and their 54 satellites, all of which revolve around the Sun. Compared to other stars in the universe, the Sun is a medium-small star. Earth's distance from the Sun and its position in the solar system make it suitable for sustaining life.
Some people, when they encounter something new, may understand the extraordinary thing that they see and be led to investigate it further. After a while they get used to it, and the first effect it had upon them diminishes. Especially those things or events they encounter nearly every day become commonplace for them. This has happened to humanity, who now finds Earth, its position, and its contents commonplace.
Those people who acquire more than an ordinary amount of knowledge about Earth become accustomed to its wonders. For them, it is normal to think of Earth as constantly rotating in space, containing a layer of fire a few kilometers under their feet, constantly threatened by falling meteorites, and the Sun's indispensable existence. However, thinking people do not become accustomed to the blessings and beauty surrounding them; rather, they always marvel at Earth's suitability to sustain life and the presence of what is needed for this life to remain and flourish. They recall the name the All-Merciful and Most Merciful and give thanks for all things, among them Earth's distance from the Sun, the balanced atmosphere, the speed of Earth's revolution and orbit, the benefit of Earth's oceans and mountains, as well as the qualities of living things and connections with each other. For a human being to understand Allah's eternal power, it is very important to consider the proofs that we will explain:
Earth's temperature is a wonderful manifestation of the All-Merciful. Among the 9 known planets in the solar system and their 53 moons there is not one body in the heavens suitable to sustain life. Each one of them is a silent and lifeless mass of matter. The Earth is much different from them. Its atmosphere, surface shapes, temperature, seasons, elements, and distance from the Sun are different from theirs, for everything is created in a special balance to sustain life.
This flawless creation of the Earth is a great generosity from Allah to humanity.
The Earth's temperature allows living things, especially such complex living things as human beings, to live and an atmosphere they can breathe. And these two factors have come about through determining the ideal values in all of its widely differing components. One of these is its distance from the Sun. When we consider the universe, we see that the average temperature needed to support life is very difficult to obtain. But Earth has the exact temperature mean. Indeed, this temperature has to do as much with the Sun's energy generated as the distance between Earth and the Sun.
According to calculations, if a 10 percent drop in the amount of the Sun's energy that reaches the Earth occurred, our planet would be covered by a layer of ice of meters thick. If that energy increased slightly, every living thing would be burned to a crisp. However, these things do not occur and Earth's atmosphere remains perfectly stable – a manifestation of Allah's incomparable artistry and eternal love.
It is very important that Earth's ideal temperature is evenly distributed within the planet. To achieve this even balance, some very important conditions must come together. For example, the 23°27' inclination of Earth's axis prevents the excessive heat that would not permit the part of the atmosphere existing between the poles and the equator to form. In its absence, the difference between the temperature at the poles and the equator would greatly increase and the atmosphere would be unable to support life. In addition, a few automatic systems continually balance the atmosphere's temperature. For example, when one area becomes overheated, evaporation increases and clouds form to reflect back some of the Sun's rays, thereby preventing the air below and Earth's surface from becoming too hot. When all of these balances work together, Earth's temperature is such that all life can survive. The fact that so many and varied conditions work together to produce a magnificent order is one of the countless manifestations of Allah as the All-Merciful. Earth's seasons are also a result of these conditions, and every season is filled with wonderful things that Allah has created.
Thinking a little about Earth's size allows us to see Allah's mercy. When we examine our planet, we see that it is exactly as large as it has to be. American geologists state its suitability to sustain life: "The Earth is exactly the size it needs to be. If it were smaller, gravity would be weakened and could not maintain the atmosphere around the Earth. If it were any larger then gravity would greatly increase and certain poisonous gasses would be trapped in the atmosphere, making that atmosphere lethal." Because of the delicate balance in this subtle plan created by Allah life can be sustained on this Earth. This is a good example of Allah's endless compassion for His servants.
The Van Allen Belts, magnetic circles located thousands of kilometers above Earth, protect our planet from potential dangers coming from outer space. Without this magnetic shield, frequent fatal rays would destroy life, or perhaps life would never have begun. This magnetic field is the result of Earth's core being formed of such heavy elements as nickel and iron, which have magnetic qualities and is an obvious manifestation of Allah's mercy upon people.
Earth's internal structure is also created to support life. Due to the strata in its internal structure, it has a magnetic field that is very important for sustaining life. This field extends far beyond the planet's atmosphere, which protects Earth from the dangers that may come from outer space. Fatal cosmic rays originating from stars other that the Sun cannot penetrate this protective shield, for Earth's magnetic field allows only 0.1 percent of them to enter, all of which are then absorbed by the atmosphere. Without this magnetic field, life would be destroyed by these fatal rays. But because its core is exactly as it must be, Earth is protected. In other words, as the Qur'an tells us, a special protective shield has been set up for us: "We made the sky a preserved and protected roof, yet still they turn away from Our Signs" (Surat al-Anbiya, 32).
Indeed, there are other things apart from physical laws that Allah has created to protect living creatures. Consider Earth's stable security. As one moves toward the planet's center, the temperature increases by 30 degrees every kilometer (mile). In the core, it is as high as 4,500 degrees. When we consider that the temperature just one kilometer underground is close to 60 degrees Celsius, we can appreciate just how dangerous this is. But all living things are secure and live unaware of the burning magma below them. We can plainly see that Allah has ordered our planet's surface with a ball of fire beneath it. He keeps the heavens under His control and protects all living creatures at every moment, whether they know it or not, from great danger. People become accustomed to things and look at their existence as completely natural; these things are basic proofs of Allah's divine protection and mercy. Since the hundreds of physical laws that give order to the Earth exist at this moment as they must, there are no overriding forces. Allah is the best of protectors.
Earth's atmosphere is an extraordinary mixture that brings together the conditions required for life to survive: 77% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and about 1% carbon dioxide, argon, and other gasses. Oxygen causes the chemical reactions that human beings and other creatures with complex body structures produce in order to obtain energy. For this reason, we constantly need oxygen, and we breathe in order to supply this need. The level of oxygen in the air is a very delicate balance. If the mixture of gasses were different, life could not exist on Earth. But Allah has ordered the atmosphere perfectly so that living things can survive and, as a proof of His mercy, maintains this balance.
1. The 1370 km (851 miles) thick inner core, which is in a crystalline state because of the influence of heat and high pressure
2. The 2900 km (1.800 miles) thick Mantle layer formed from rapidly flowing magma.
3. Magma adı verilen kızgın akıcı maddeden oluşan, 2.900 km kalınlıktaki manto tabakası.
4 . The 6-35 km (4-21 miles) thick lithosphere. Earth's crust.
Allah's eternal knowledge rules every atom and molecule of this perfectly operating system, and without His eternal power, no oxygen and nitrogen molecules could have been assembled. The atmosphere could be composed of heavy and malodorous gasses that would make our breathing difficult. However Allah, in His endless mercy, created the atmosphere so that we can breathe comfortably, for He is the Guardian Who protects, watches over, and sustains all life: In one of the verses it is revealed as follows: "… and you will not harm Him at all. My Lord is the Preserver of everything" (Surah Hud, 57) Allah created the universe and adorned its system with millions of varied details; He controls it and preserves it at every moment. He created everything from nothing and designed a perfect order ruling over creation with His intelligence and power. And He still creates this order, watching over it and protecting it at every moment: Allah reveals this truth in the verses: "Your Lord is (as a Guardian) on a watch-tower." (Surat al-Fajr, 14).
The atmosphere's numerical values are important not only for breathing, but also for keeping the blue planet blue. If the atmospheric pressure fell by one-fifth, the rate of evaporation would increase and accumulate in high proportions in the atmosphere, thereby raising Earth's temperature excessively. If the atmospheric pressure rose by 1, evaporation would decrease greatly and nearly all of the planet would become desert. All of these balances, like other aspects of Earth, show that our atmosphere has been created specially to sustain life. The Lord Who rules the universe created matter from nothing and shaped it according to His will; He holds the galaxies, the stars, and the planets in His power and has made them serve humanity. Allah has ordered our blue planet to sustain life and, as the Qur'an says, has "smoothed out ". the Earth for human beings (Surat an-Nazi'at, 30). All that we have examined here shows us that this perfect order is a manifestation of Allah's sublime mercy and compassion. Earth has been ordered to bring forth life. Its location in space, together with the fact that it has been endowed with whatever living creatures require, are proofs that this planet is a work of Allah's artistry filled with His generous goodness. We see the same truth when we look at this life-giving planet's inhabitants. All living things on this Earth are created with an amazing artistry, every creature has been created in an appropriate environment and body, and every aspect of what exists reflects His flawless artistry.