Allah Created the Universe
Many different theories have been posited to explain the universe's creation. Some people, who disregarded the scientific evidence about the beginnings of the universe, suggested that matter has always existed. One hypothesis put forward to support this view is the "Steady-state Hypothesis." Comprehensive and long research has revealed strong evidence about the fact that the universe has a beginning. The Steady-state hypothesis, on the other hand, has become a distant memory in the history of science.
Data shows that the universe came into being from nothing. Accordingly, the universe has an explosive beginning: the "Big Bang." Before that, there was nothing: no matter, energy, space, time, or a universe. As a consequence of an explosion of an infinitely dense, zero volume point, matter was blasted out at an incredible speed in all directions, forming stars, planets and other heavenly bodies. The universe expanded, inflated, grew rapidly, and, over time, cooled and assumed its present shape.
At the present time, most books on cosmology, science journals, and articles on the subject, as well as supporting evidence, assert that the universe began with a Big Bang and therefore has a certain age. As it is impossible to squeeze all of this written material into a few lines, we will provide one or two examples.
Professor George O. Abell (University of California) states that although the steady-state universe appeals to materialists, it has to be abandoned in the face of new evidence:
When American scientists announced the discovery of radiation patterns in space that may mark the beginning of time itself, astrophysicist George Smoot, leader of the research team said:
Given that the universe has a beginning, it has to have been made from nothing. In other words, it was created. If there was a creation, there has to be a Creator. This universe was created without a preceding model and even before time and space existed. The most crucial fact discovered by this theory is that the universe has a beginning and an absolute and All-Powerful Creator. Allah created the universe!
The Big Bang is the first movement that we can calculate in the universe. Every single move and event since that moment has happened by Allah's will and under His control. It is unacceptable as well as irrational to assume that matter dispersed by an unconscious explosion could form, by itself, such a galactic order, star systems, and the solar system to which our planet belongs. Everything that can be observed in the environment, including one's own body, has been created in an infinite order within Allah's control and knowledge. Allah reveals that He first created the heavens, then Earth, and finally living beings.
Allah created the universe with a very delicate balance and order. Countless factors are interlinked with one another, from the proportion of the atmosphere's different gases to Earth's surface temperature, from the speed of rainfall to the iron content of Earth's core. The force of gravity, which keeps all of the stars and planets in their respective orbits, is another example of this. All matter in the universe is subject to gravitational forces, according to its size. Earth's gravitational force holds the oceans and everything else, including living beings, firmly on Earth's surface. This way, people and other creatures, as well as oceans and mountains, do not fall into the void of space. Earth's mass is of crucial importance here: If its mass had been slightly larger, it would have exerted a greater pull on everything on the planet's surface. Consequently, groundwater would have receded, people would have been unable to walk, water could not have reached the tree branch's leaves, vegetation would have disappeared, and blood circulation would have become dysfunctional and concentrated the blood in the feet. All of these and similar examples prove that Earth's mass is adjusted in such a way to sustain its ecological systems and life forms.
Scientists investigating the universe's eventual end believe that everything is in the process of decaying, and that the universe's end will be a result of this decay. They suggest that even one unstable proton could cause this event, and warn that the world will definitely come to an end:
After pointing out this fact, our attention is drawn to the reality:
These few examples are enough to prove that the universe was created by a superior power, who gave it a great order and balance. Our All-Powerful Lord protects and watches over this faultless order, for:
Allah keeps a firm hold on the heavens and Earth, preventing them from vanishing away. And if they vanished, no one could then keep hold of them. Certainly He is Most Forbearing, Ever-Forgiving. (Surah Fatir, 41)
Allah reveals in the Qur'an that everything in the universe will end. It is obvious that Allah, Who created and sustains this universe, can destroy it whenever He wills. On this great Final Day, all existing orders will cease, and everything that people admired, investigated and incessantly tried to comprehend will be turned on its head, for:
His command when He desires a thing is just to say to it, "Be!" and it is. Glory be to Him Who has the Dominion of all things in His Hand. To Him you will be returned. (Surah Ya Sin, 82-83)
The Universe's Eventual Destruction
Our world is surrounded by deadly threats. Surprisingly, even though we know of such dangers, many of us live as if no life-threatening danger faces the universe and as if our lives were guaranteed. Many of us do not reflect upon death or what comes after death.
Our world is on a long journey in an endless space. In reality, the factors making this journey possible are more numerous than anticipated. Earth faces many dangers on this journey: from comets to falling stars, from black holes to supernova explosions. It must stay in its orbit around the Sun, revolving at a constant speed on its axis, following a spiral path at the required angle to the Sun, and maintain all of the prevailing balances in its systems for life to be possible on it.
However, there is no reason why external dangers should not destroy these balances. Scientists, who point out these dangers at every opportunity, agree that Earth could face such dangers at any time. As Professor Carl Sagan says:
It would not be surprising to see the universe destroyed by some of the things mentioned earlier. Maybe all of the things Allah says will happen on the Day of Judgment will happen because Earth's equilibrium will be damaged. No doubt, damaging the faultlessly functioning order could cause many catastrophes, and maybe, the Last Day, which some people consider unlikely or far in the future, is just round the corner.
The Probable Causes Of Earth's Death
The countless factors that enable our world to continue its existence must be present at the same time and in the same way as they are. Many scientists are studying how to preserve these natural balances. A small example: Scientists and environmentalists predict that it will not be possible to reduce the economic and environmental damage caused by the consumption of such fossil fuels as oil and coal.8 Experts in the field say that the following disaster scenarios will be caused by the escalating consumption of fossil fuels in the very near future:
All of the above dangers have been predicted by scientific research. Once Earth begins this process, only Allah will be able to stop it. The 25 percent increase in carbon dioxide in 1997 alone increased the greenhouse effect, which caused the following events: parts of polar glaciers melted, icebergs melted and raised the oceans' water levels, colder winters than usual, extreme rainfall, and devastating hurricanes and floods. The hole in the ozone layer exposed Earth to harmful radiation from space, increased cancer rates, caused new illnesses to be identified and diagnosed, and revealed degenerative developments in plant life. American scientists and Greenpeace activists discovered during their research in Alaska that the Bering Glacier has shrunk by 12 kms (7.5 miles) in length and 130 m2 (155 square yards) in size.10 The ocean's water temperature increased by 0.8 degrees; corals, which play a vital role in the ecosystem's balance, began to die; and 80 percent of the plankton was destroyed.11
Over the last few centuries, many new probable causes for the world's end have emerged, and their number continues to increase every day. Our planet's current situation contains a strong message: Earth's end is a certainty, and its time is approaching. Physicists, in particular, frequently express their concerns about this, as follows:
It is surprising that so many people continue to live without considering their own end and being in awe of Allah, and remain totally absorbed by their worldly lives despite the proximity of death. And, it is even more surprising that most people, when reminded of death and the ensuing hardships, consider it a distant possibility. As these people reject the verses of the Qur'an from the outright ignorantly and without basing themselves on any kind of scientific finding, they fail to understand the descriptions of the Day of Judgment. They behave as if they will live forever, and so endanger the eternal life for the sake of a temporary life. Death, which people try to avoid at all costs, will find all of them, for neither humanity nor the universe can avoid or prevent death. In the Qur'an Allah reveals this reality, as follows:
Say: "Death, from which you are fleeing, will certainly catch up with you. Then you will be returned to the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible, and He will inform you about what you did." (Surat al-Jumu'a, 8)
Given that Earth's destruction is a physical fact rather than a belief, the factors that will contribute to its end reveal themselves in the light of scientific discoveries. Even people who do not believe in Allah or any other religion must acknowledge that the universe is approaching its inevitable end. Hence, other than the belief in the Day of Judgment and the fact of Hereafter, a new fallacious understanding emerges for some people. This fallacious understanding is highly frightening, because it means endless nothingness. However when those people face the Day of Judgment, even if they call for destruction many times until the eternity, their call will never be answered and they will get the result of all they did while they were in this world in the Hereafter.
The End Of The Universe: The Closed Universe And Open Universe Models
Scientists agree that the Big Bang theory is irrefutable and wholly based on scientific data. Accordingly, the universe was born out of the sudden explosion of an infinitely dense point and its subsequent rapid expansion and growth in space. Over time, it began to cool and assumed its current shape.
So, for how long will this expansion continue? The greater an object's mass, the greater its gravitational force—to the extent that the gravitational force will overwhelm the rate of expansion. However, if the gravitational force is smaller, expansion cannot be prevented. According to scientists, if the universe's mass exceeds a certain limit, the expansion will cease one day and the universe will collapse back in on itself. This is the closed universe model. But if its mass is below this limit, the gravitational forces will be unable to overcome expansion and so it will continue to expand infinitely. This is the open universe model.
The universe will either close and end, or expand until it is exhausted and then end, unless Allah causes it to end in another way. In order to predict by which model the universe will die, we need to know its total mass.
As determining this is very difficult, scientists have tried to measure its density rather than its mass, because if the density reaches a critical point, its gravity may overcome the expansion of galaxies. Thus, the universe would begin to collapse by sucking in all of the galaxies. But if its density does not reach this critical value, the expansion will continue forever, because gravity cannot overcome the the galaxies' expansion. Scientists setting out from this premise undertook to discover the end of the universe. They conducted many experiments and spent endless hours analyzing light from distant galaxies through telescopes.
The speed of galactic systems was measured; their size, intensity, and distance were calculated; and the universe's real density was researched. The emerging data confirms that the universe's present density is close to critical density. In other words, it is more probable that the universe is closed. Once the data obtained by the American scientists Edwin Loh and Earl Spillar—research that is based on the study of thousands of galaxies—was added to the existing data in 1986, the probability of the universe being closed reached 90 percent.
Furthermore, several factors were disregarded while calculating the universe's density, which led to the 90 percent figure. For instance, black holes were not taken into account. If they had been, the density value would have increased by a certain amount. Once the dark matters' density—present in all galaxies—is added to the equation, the emerging picture shows that the universe will cease to expand and collapse within itself. Dr. John Gribbin, a well-known physicist and science writer, also stated that the evidence for the closed universe model has never been so strong.13
Phrasing it differently, the universe has reached a critical point and is ready to implode at any time. Allah reveals that one day He will return the universe to its original state, as follows:
That Day We will fold up Heaven like folding up the pages of a book. As We originated the first creation so shall We bring it back again. It is a promise binding on Us. That is what We will do. (Surat al-Anbiya', 104)
It is highly probable that this verse indicates the closed universe model. What we have related here shows that scientific data implies that the universe is likely to implode. Moreover, the guardians of materialist ideologies can posit no serious counterclaim in the face of such research results.
Dr. Scherman, dean of the University of Chicago's astronomy department, says that whereas the closed universe idea used to be represented chiefly by religion and philosophy, there is now much experimental as well as theoretical evidence that shows its correctness.14
Our universe has been expanding for 15 billion years, but according to the obtained results and at the time when Allah wills, probably gravity will overcome expansion and bring it to a close. Once gravity becomes the dominant force in a closed and extremely dense universe, everything will begin to implode and be reversed, for all that had until then been cooling and expanding will contract and heat up. As a result, all of the galaxies will be rapidly brought closer to one another.
According this model, gravity will end the universe's expansion and cause the galaxies to move toward one another at escalating speeds. Devastating collisions will take place; huge stars will collide and fuse. The Moon, the Sun, and Earth, as well as all other stars and planets, will fuse, and at the end of this process the imploding universe will be concentrated in one point and destroyed. The whole universe will be turned upside down. Given that a small deviation in Earth's orbit would lead to either the burning up or freezing to death of all living beings, that a small hole in the atmosphere can have devastating effects, and that a change to the 23o 27' angle of Earth's axis would prevent the seasons, it is not difficult to estimate the negative effect of the universe's contraction on the precarious balances upon which its order rests.
Allah reveals that the Sun and the Moon will be fused together on the Day of Judgment. Perhaps these verses indicate the closed universe model. If contraction occurs, the world, our solar system's other planets and stars, as well as the Sun and the Moon, will merge.
In the Qur'an Allah also reveals that the stars will fall from their places in the heavens in rapid succession (Surat at-Takwir, 2). This verse could indicate a closed universe model, because in this scenario the stars will leave their orbit and collide. In a contracting universe, time will move backwards, and so there could be similarities between the events taking place at that time on Earth and the events that occur when entering a black hole. As with everything else, gravitational forces will be reversed, Earth will disgorge its charges and be shaken, the mountains will be pulverized, and the oceans will overflow. We do not know how long this process will last, but these events will take place as Allah describes them in the Qur'an.
We can summarize this as follows: If the closed universe model is true, the universe will merge in one point and be extinguished by Allah.
However, this does not mean that the expanding universe model will save the universe from destruction. If this scenario is true, it simply means that the universe will be destroyed in another way. Ever since it was created, the universe's density has continued to increase, and its temperature nearly reached absolute zero. The presently prevailing temperature in space is -270oC—only 3 degrees warmer than absolute zero.15 As long as the expansion continues, the universe's temperature will continue to decrease. A temperature of -270oC is the most suitable for life to exist.16 Even minor fluctuations will doom all life to death. This temperature cannot remain constant in an expanding universe. So, when it falls, humanity and all other living parts of creation will die.
Confirmed findings of recent research suggest that the closed universe model is applicable. Although uncertain of exactly which model it might be, scientists agree that the fate of the universe will be the same: In both models the universe dies, albeit in different ways. As we have explained above, both models lead to the Last Day. However, there are other factors that can bring about the universe's end, such as the Sun's completion of its life cycle. Allah knows the truth.
The Sun Completes its Life-Cycle
Stars are born, live for a certain period of time, and then die. Our Sun has a limited lifetime. Before the universe meets its end, the Sun might have completed its life cycle, which, in turn, means that Earth will have to die as well.
The Sun is an estimated 5 billion years old. Every second, it converts 564 million tons of hydrogen into 560 million tons of helium.17 The remaining 4 million tons of matter is converted into energy. When it reaches the phase in which it will burn up and use up its hydrogen, Earth's end will have come. At this stage, the abundant hydrogen in the Sun's core will be replaced by helium, and the core's temperature will increase from its present 20 million degrees to 100 million degrees Centigrade. While the Sun's core overheats, its outer layers will expand and its color will take on a red hue instead of its usual yellow. In this way, the Sun will become a "red giant."
Scientists make the following predictions: The Sun, so vital for earthly life, will bloat and expand in space; our solar system's planets will catch fire; and those small planets near to it will be destroyed. Despite the Sun's outer temperature remaining the same, nearby planets will be greatly affected by its heat radiation, which is caused by its increased volume. First Mercury and then Venus will burn up.
The continuation of life on Earth depends on the preservation of the universe's many existing balances. For instance, if Earth were to come a little closer to the Sun, all life on it would die. Thus, Earth will be greatly affected by the expanding Sun way before its outer fringes reach it. By the time Mercury and Venus are engulfed in flames, all of Earth's natural conditions will have been destroyed and all life on it will have been destroyed. In a very short time, the extreme heat will evaporate the oceans and melt the rocks and mountains, which soon will become gases. In a moment, the planet will burn up and become a handful of ash scattered across the universe. Scientists reached this conclusion after studying stars that have a similar size to our own Sun. Many distant stars are becoming "red giants," which cause many extraordinary events in the universe.18 When the giant Sun uses up its fuel, it will no longer be able to support the weight of its inner layers, and they will begin to collapse toward the core, eventually producing a small, dense, cool star called a white dwarf. After it becomes a white dwarf, it will cool slowly for billions of years, eventually becoming so cool that it will no longer emit light.
Professor of Theoretical Physics and renowned science writer Paul Davies expresses his concerns about the Sun's decreasing energy levels in the following way:
This is only one of the possibilities that would end with destruction. As a natural consequence of this process, the disaster issuing from the Sun is an unavoidable end. In addition, research reveals many other factors that could destroy Earth.
The universe contains millions of moving large and small meteors. The consequences of a collision between these and a planet vary, according to the mass of the meteor involved.
Scientists estimate that 1,000 tons to more than 10,000 tons of meteoritic material falls on the Earth each day. However, most of this material is very tiny—in the form of micrometeoroids or dust-like grains a few micrometers in size.20 And most of the rest is reduced to ash partly because of the friction they encounter upon entering the atmosphere. In other words, Earth's atmosphere protects us from possible catastrophes day after day. Somewhat distressingly, however, some meteors are large enough to destroy all life on Earth. Scientists have shown that meteor strikes in Earth's past have altered its geological and ecological landscape significantly.
One meteorite, estimated to have a diameter of 60 kms (37 miles), exploded in the atmosphere above Tunguska in Siberia in 1908 and destroyed some 2,000 km2 (770 square miles) of forest. Its explosive force was 1,000 times more powerful than the atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima. Fortunately, it exploded above a largely uninhabited area. If it had exploded above the Eiffel tower, it probably would have killed over 10 million people.21
This event brought home to people the great threat of catastrophic natural disasters. This is how it happened:
Eyewitnesses can give us clues about other potential disasters:
We do not know from where the next meteor might come or strike.
According to scientists, every 2 centuries a meteor the size of the Tunguska one collides with Earth, a fact that illustrates the proximity of such disasters. There is no reason why the next impact should not occur on a densely populated area. At present, scientists are very concerned about such an impact's potential consequences, for:
The impact of such a massive object on a large city could kill millions of people. If it fell in the ocean, it would still be devastatingly dangerous, for its velocity and mass would create tidal waves that would destroy the shoreline's populated areas. Furthermore, the likelihood of much larger meteors colliding with Earth is highly probable and gives food for thought. Scientists consider such an event inevitable, and say that it would be able to destroy whole continents and fill the atmosphere with toxic gases. They also readily admit that they are still fervently looking for a solution.
Asteroids and Comets
Scientist state that the probability of a collision between Earth and some of the known asteroids increases by the day. Duncan Smith, reader in space technology at the University of Salford said scientists had identified more than a thousand asteroids, of various dimensions, that have orbits around the Sun that cross the path of the Earth. Scientists say that big asteroids have hit Earth before and it is only a matter of time before one strikes the Earth again.25
Each year, many fragments of debris hit our planet, but most of them are so small that they burn up harmlessly in the atmosphere, unnoticed by us. However, some of this material is larger than what the atmosphere can handle.
Geologist Walter Alvarez lists the probable events of a comet (shooting star) entering Earth's atmosphere in his book T-Rex and the Crater of Doom where he describes the world 65 million years ago:
Scientists believe that a very large celestial body (most probably a comet) collided with Earth 65 million years ago and marked it considerably. Based on this experience and subsequent collisions, it is possible to predict the events following such an impact and the probable consequences for our planet.
The potential energy of a comet before impact is equivalent to 100 billion megatons of TNT, which will cause it to evaporate in seconds and can leave a crater 40 kms (25 miles) deep. In comparison, a hydrogen bomb has the force of 1 megaton of TNT. At the height of the cold war, there were 10,000 such weapons. On the other hand, a comet's potential force is 10 million times greater than the force of all of the explosives that existed at that time.
The Qur'an reveals that on the Day of Judgment there will be shocking tremors, that everything will be leveled, and that the oceans will boil over. A collision with a comet or an asteroid could cause all of these disasters. Massive seismic waves would disturb the ocean beds, causing landslides and huge tidal waves. Scientists remark that previous tidal waves caused in this way were of such a magnitude that they left their marks on the ocean bed.
Recent research reveals that a large object that fell into the Gulf of Mexico created large-scale tidal waves headed for Florida. While traveling toward their destination, they grew even larger and endangered the coast. They eventually destroyed large areas of forest. Although many people live as if their death and the Day of Judgment will never come, there is no reason why such a catastrophe should not occur. For instance, one day before the above catastrophe occurred, the soil covering great swathes of America and Mexico were fertile; soon after it struck, however, all of it was rendered useless.27
Fourteen centuries ago, Allah revealed that on the Day of Judgment the sky will split apart (Surat al-Haqqa, 16) and will be like molten brass (Surat al-Ma'arij, 8). This scenario resembles the effects of a comet or a large meteor colliding with Earth.
Paul Davies, in his book The Last Three Minutes, says that a comet on a collision course with Earth will emit such an intense light that the atmosphere will begin to burn up from above and melt like metal. He also states that the escaping gases in the vacuum of space will create a tornado. These statements are quite similar to what Allah says in the Qur'an, as follows:
When Heaven is split apart and goes rose-red, like dregs of oil. (Surat ar-Rahman, 37)
The melting and running of the heavens like molten brass or dregs of oil is reminiscent of a hot, thick-flowing liquid. In such a case, the skies would take on a red-hot color. As Davies states, on that Day the superheated gases could form tornados, and the resemblance thereof to a red rose is obvious.
Allah will bring the Day of Judgment at a predetermined time and fulfill His promises. These events may take place one by one, or all at once. Similar things have happened before, for both asteroids and comets have caused localized and, at other times, widespread, damage. Only Allah knows the time of the next one.
Scientists predict that an asteroid will come close to Earth in 2028. According to them, if it falls into the Atlantic Ocean, America and Europe will be submerged; if it falls onto land, it will be far more destructive. Asteroids entering the atmosphere would cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, the dust of which would veil Earth in darkness. Astronomers point out that even the proximity of such a comet would pose a great danger to Earth.28
Scientists refer to the Swift-Tuttle comet, which passed close by in 1993 and is expected to return in 2126. Calculations suggest a high probability of a collision, as it is expected to pass by at 2 weeks' distance—a close encounter indeed—and many scientists are genuinely concerned and worried about such a near miss. The inconsistent orbits of these objects create a continuous traffic, which means that Earth and other planets are constantly at risk. According to experts, Swift-Tuttle or some other object eventually will collide with Earth. Some of them could cause greater devastation than all of humanity's nuclear weapons combined. We just do not know when this will happen.
Davies says "when it does, it will be bad news for people. There will be an abrupt and unprecedented interruption in the history of our species." He says that a collision would almost certainly spell the end for humanity.29 He deals extensively with this subject in his book The Last Three Minutes, in which he states that on the 21st of August 2126, Swift-Tuttle will strike Earth and thereby usher in our planet's final day. There is a great similarity between what he relates and what Allah reveals, as follows:
No doubt, this description is not farfetched. Just one comet can cause such damage, but we do not know when it will collide with Earth. Regardless of how much people try to deny the existence of the Day of Judgment, it can confront them as a possibility that is closer than they think, for Allah reveals that:
The Unseen of the heavens and Earth belongs to Allah. The matter of the Hour is only the blink of an eye away, or even nearer. Allah has power over all things. (Surat an-Nahl, 77)
What Form Will The End Of The World Take?
Adnan Oktar: After (Hijri) 1542 there will be no more Risale-i Nur and no more Qur'an. They will al be raised to the heavens. They will persist in their vices for 3 years. Yes, from 1542 to '42, '43, '44 and '45. Then in 1545 all their bodily systems will malfunction. Allah says their hair will turn snow white. People will experience the worst conceivable terror. The world will begin to revolve in the other direction. The Qur'an says the world will lose its sanity, that it will go mad. And mad actions will begin. There will be an asteroid, a huge asteroid, a really enormous asteroid. These have usually missed us, but this one will not. When it strikes, the Earth will begin turning in the other direction. The core will keep revolving, but the Earth's crust will be immobilized. Then the crust will begin revolving in the other direction, but the core will keep spinning. For example, if you fill a bowl with water and then spin it quickly in a centrifuge. Then when you take the bowl out the water in it keeps revolving. There will be terrible damage from that. That is what is described in the verse, "you will see the seas burning." Columns of magma tens of thousands of kilometers high will begin spouting up from the Bosphorus, Marmara and the Mediterranean, from everywhere. Everywhere will be split open. The Bosphorus will open and close. It will be short, but they will experience the worst ever terror. Then angles will begin descending ... But the freedom to choose to believe will no longer apply. There will be no way back, insha'Allah. These things will happen in order. (Kral Karadeniz TV, October 4th 2009)
At present, scientists believe that black holes of enormous mass exist in the center of many galaxies. Their massive gravitational force swallows its own radiation and everything else that comes within its vicinity, an action that only further increases their size and gravitational force. They can pull in stars many times their own size, planets, smaller black holes, and even whole galaxies. As our planet travels rapidly in the endless void of space, one day it might enter the gravitational zone of a black hole.
Black holes are a most dense phenomenon that pulls in everything. Their gravitational force is so strong that nothing in its path can escape it. Just like a vacuum cleaner, black holes suck in everything in their gravitational spectrum: planets, satellites, asteroids, and even stars. Once they enter this field of gravity, they cannot escape.
Why do black holes suck in everything?
As we know, every object exerts a certain gravitational force. For example, if we throw a stone into the sky, it will go up until it exhausts its velocity and then falls to the ground by the force of gravity. For an object to escape Earth's gravity, it needs to exceed a certain speed in one direction (velocity). If a rocket is to break free of Earth's gravity, it must reach a velocity that can overcome gravity: 11.2 kms (7 miles) per second.
To escape a black hole, the object must travel faster than the speed of light. However, since nothing can exceed the speed of light, nothing can escape a black hole's gravity, not even bundles of light traveling at a speed of 300,000 kms (190,000 miles) per second. Since not even light can escape, black holes are always dark. There is no reason why our planet, traveling at high speeds through space, should not enter a black hole's gravitational field. In fact, scientists in America have disclosed the existence of two active black holes in the center of our galaxy, each of which can swallow up millions of stars larger than our Sun.
The American Astronomers Association recently published a scientific report in which it says that one of the black holes is right in the center of our galaxy, just 26,000 light years away from Earth (one light year is almost 9.5 trillion kilometers, or nearly six trillion miles). It is called "Sagittarius A" or "A-Star,"31 and is as large as our solar system but has a mass millions of times higher. Based upon calculations, its mass is 2.6 billions times that of the Sun and it sucks in stars at a speed of 965 kms (600 miles) per second. This is no doubt a serious discovery and poses a great danger to our planet.
The other black hole, "Old Faithful," is spherical in shape, is much larger, and is 40,000 light years away. It resembles an insatiable monster that swallows up all stars within its reach.
The fact that A-Star swallows up the stars in its environment at a speed of 965 kms (600 miles) per second shows that its gravitational force increases with every star it swallows. Therefore, at the end of this process, the escalating speed with which it draws objects to itself will reach an incredible magnitude.
As black holes swallow up light, they cannot be seen or perceived even by the most highly developed telescopes and other technology. Therefore, scientists must determine their existence through research and measurement. By using such tools, scientists have already proven the existence of several black holes. However, there is a strong probability that many more have not yet been discovered yet, as the current level of research is insufficient.
Many scientists believe that our Sun has a twin, which likely became a black hole. The reasoning behind this assumption is that all other stars in our solar system exist in groups of twos, threes, and fives, except for our Sun. The supporting evidence is considerable and is being analyzed. Considering that the Sun is only 150 million kms (93 million miles) away from Earth, the potential danger is undeniable. In short, there is no reason why Earth should not fall into a black hole's gravitational field at any given moment.
Many scientists believe that a black hole will annihilate Earth by swallowing it. Even if Earth avoids this end, there is a great danger of a black hole's passing by our solar system. And, what would happen if a black hole quietly approached our solar system? Such an event could alter the orbits of many planets, which of course would affect Earth's balance. Hundreds and even thousands of asteroids could be affected by such a gravitational force. Many would be sucked in by the black hole, and hundreds or thousands of them would fall on Earth.
There are an estimated 200 other galaxies besides our own in the universe, each of which consists of 200 billion stars, revolves around its own axis, and follows an orbit. Our galaxy is traveling at a high speed in the direction of an imaginary point called the Solar Apex near the bright star Vega. Due to all of this movement in the universe, collisions and huge explosions occur. But because they happen millions of light years away, we do not notice them.
For instance, the Hubble telescope took pictures of two galaxies colliding some 63 million light years away. As a result of this event, new stars were born and massive hydrogen clouds were formed and released into space. If such a collision were to take place near Earth, it could become one of the factors that would destroy our planet.
Furthermore, scientists state that such an end probably awaits our solar system. One such disclosure is the following:
Allah reveals in the Qur'an that on that Day, Earth will be rocked by devastating tremors; that people will experience pure terror; that the Sun, the Moon, and stars will be extinguished; and that everything will be destroyed rapidly. A collision could cause all of these events, and would affect not only Earth but our entire solar system as well.
Scientific research reveals that the promised Day of Judgment will definitely come, that all living and non-living things and Earth too will be destroyed, and that Allah will create a new sky and a different world. All of this is related to point out that Earth can also die by natural causes. However, there is no doubt that Allah does not require a cause to do such things and that if Allah wills it, he can make the Day of Judgment happen at any time and even without the need for a collision or an explosion.
The probabilities we have examined here are only a few of the possible ways for life to be destroyed. Moreover, scientific research confirms that such an event is a realistic expectation.
The universe's continued expansion is another probable cause for Earth to die. Many people are untouched by such concerns, because they see them as very distant possibilities or simply prefer to let future generations deal with them. However, there are even greater possibilities for the destruction of the Earth. Doubtlessly only Allah knows which one will bring about the Day of Judgment. Regardless of how remote a possibility seems to people, researches done and the increase in catastrophic events suggest that such a day is approaching. And of course Allah has the Power to bring about the Day of Judgment with a reason which is not expected or never known, or without any reason at all. In the Qur'an Allah reveals the following:
He created the heavens and Earth with truth. The day He says "Be!" it is. His speech is Truth. The Kingdom will be His on the Day the Trumpet is blown, the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible. He is the All-Wise, the All-Aware. (Surat al-An'am, 73)
In the following chapters, the similarities in between these possibilities scientists regard as certain and the Day of Judgment Allah relates in the Qur'an will be reviewed.
Allah is All-Powerful
For many years, people have wondered how the universe will end. Many possibilities spring to mind, but Allah can make it happen without a cause and all of a sudden. The probabilities revealed by scientific research constitute a warning and give us the opportunity to reflect and turn to Allah before that difficult Day comes in accordance with His will. The believers are certain that the Day of Judgment will happen at the predetermined time in His Presence. All people will experience it, for they will be in the All-Powerful's grip. The fact that Allah is All-Powerful is revealed in the Qur'an as follows:
Or let you see what We have promised them. They are completely in Our power. (Surat az-Zukhruf, 42)
Many events can cause Earth's existing order to collapse and all life to be lost. Furthermore, as time progresses, even more probable causes are added to the already existing ones. Many signs indicate that our world is moving rapidly toward its predetermined end, even if most people deny the existence of the Day of Judgment. Allah states this reality in the following verse:
The Hour is coming, but I have concealed it so that every self can be repaid for its efforts. (Surah Ta Ha, 15)
Scientists have reached a consensus, based on scientific data, that the universe will be destroyed. Newspapers, magazines, television programs, and other media outlets often inform people of the latest scientific discoveries. Researchers who are aware of these facts are looking for ways in their own minds to prevent such calamities in order to delay the universe's death. Another area of research focuses on the probable changes that would take place on Earth and its effects on life were such a disaster to strike. The resulting data bears a striking resemblance to many of the events foretold in the Qur'an.