Why People Lie
Out of pride and conceit:
Conceit, one of Satan's characteristics, causes people to distance themselves from upright morality and to adopt a morality resembling that of Satan. Due to his arrogance, self-love, and groundless pride, Satan disobeyed Allah and was thrown out of His sight.
Satan, whose pride revealed itself in his clear disobedience and low morality, actually suffered even greater damage to that pride and was cursed, discredited, and dismissed from Allah's presence.In the following verse, Allah tells us that Satan's disobedience only caused him to abase himself:
He [Allah] said: "Descend from it. It is not for you to be arrogant in it. So get out! You are one of the abased." (Surat al-A`raf, 7:13)
Satan's greatest abasement is that he will live in Hell, where He will be tormented forever, because he set his pride above all else.
Satan decided to guide people away from the true path, just as he himself had deviated from it. For this reason, he uses all of his power to entice people into sin. He encourages pride and conceit, just like his own, so that people will end up harming themselves. Due to this attitude, arrogance, self-love, failure to admit errors or defects, and regarding oneself as superior and competent at all times are among the greatest potential dangers facing people. These characteristics always direct people toward sin by causing them to be disobedient, rebellious, ill-tempered, aggressive, cynical, and arrogant. Allah tells us about this:
When he is told to heed Allah, he is seized by pride, which drives him to wrongdoing. Hell will be enough for him! What an evil resting-place! (Surat al-Baqara, 2:206)
One of the sins to which pride drives people is lying, for most of the time people do not wish to admit certain truths. For example, a person does not want to admit to making a mistake at work, because she does not want others to consider her to be ignorant, clumsy, or somehow lower than her coworkers. Or when she does not want to admit that she forgot to buy something, she says instead: "I went, but there were none left."
Even though lying is a curse that makes people fall even lower, some people refuse to understand this truth and so lie right away simply to protect themselves at the given moment. Most of their lies are recognized, and so they fall even lower in other people's esteem. In addition, these people need to remember the "reward" that they will receive in the afterlife: an even lower position.
In one verse, Allah warns us against this habit:
Do not follow your own desires and deviate from the truth. If you twist or turn away, Allah is aware of what you do. (Surat an-Nisa’, 4:135)
Sincere believers never place their own advantage above Allah's good pleasure and their love of Him. Their love and devotion to Allah prevent them from doing anything that displeases Him. Moreover, if people really want honor and superiority, they should not copy the unbelievers' methods, for as the Qur'an informs us, real superiority is achieved only by following Allah and the Qur'an:
All might belongs to Allah, to His Messenger, and the believers. But the hypocrites do not know this. (Surat al-Munafiqun, 63:8)
If anyone wants power, all power belongs to Allah. All good words rise to Him, and He raises up all virtuous deeds. But people who plot evil deeds will suffer a harsh punishment. The plotting of such people is profitless. (Surah Fatir, 35:10)
Out of habit:
A significant number of people are habitual liars, having acquired this habit from others while they were still children or teenagers. For example, many young people lie about where they have been. Alternatively, when people are asked why they somehow did not live up to the other person's expectations, they might lie, sometimes without even thinking, in order to escape the blame. If they were to think a little, they would see that being honest with others would not put them at any disadvantage vis-à-vis others.
People also frequently lie when asked for their opinions. Instead of expressing their real ideas, they prefer to say what the other person wants to hear or to give an answer that will suit their personal interests. They do so either out of fear or the desire to win that person's approval.
Giving an answer that suits their own interests is widespread among people who are far from religion. They convince themselves that it is only natural to look after their own interests by adopting a defensive mentality. In such a society, this idea is regarded as extremely natural. Indeed, when a believer who lives by the Qur'an's values insists upon observing justice even at the expense of his own interests, unbelievers consider him to be either naive or unsophisticated rather than an exemplar of superior morality.
People may classify lies as harmless when they are told to protect their own interests. For instance, when a friend asks for a loan, many people who could provide the loan find ways to avoid doing so by claiming that they are looking for a loan themselves or that business is going badly. This tactic is used to block the other person's request from the outset. Among people who are far from the Qur'an's morality, such behavior is not considered immoral.
In addition, it is possible to encounter people who lie out of habit, even if they have no definite aim in mind. Such lies are based mostly on a person's having nothing to talk about or a desire to attract attention. For example, when nobody is paying any attention to them, such people may say that they did not sleep at all, even though they had a perfectly good night's sleep. Or, they might say that they have not eaten all day, instead of only a few hours, or that they have a terrible headache about which they can do nothing, even though the headache is only minor. Even though these lies might be seen as "minor" and "harmless," Allah has told us that all lies, without exception, displease Him.
To mock or make other people angry:
One reason for lying is to annoy the person addressed or to show him that he is not respected or valued. For example, when asked: "Where have you been?" a person who is late for an appointment may tell a very obvious lie to the person who has been kept waiting. Here, the basic aim is to let the other person know that his having waited is not important, that his wishes have no meaning, and to make him angry by suggesting that he is credulous.
Lying in order to mock others is also a widespread form of immorality. For instance, a person who wants to mock one of his friends might convince him that a fictitious event really took place. Believing his lying friend's words, he passes on the "news" to others and, when the truth comes out, is regarded as credulous or stupid. This entertains people who enjoy lying and mocking others. By mocking their friends' credulity and belief in them, such liars consider themselves to be very cunning and intelligent. In reality, however, Allah does not approve of this and the mocker eventually is exposed as a manipulative person who is disliked. He has, therefore, fallen into his own trap, for while trying to demean others he has only demeaned himself.
In the following verse, Allah announces that He forbids lying and mocking others:
O you who believe! People should not ridicule others who may be better than themselves, nor should any women ridicule other women who may be better than themselves... (Surat al-Hujurat, 49:11)
While some people thoughtlessly mock others and lie to entertain themselves for a few minutes, they are really engaging in unacceptable and immoral behavior. When informed of this fact, people who do not adhere to the Qur'an's morality may reply: "So what? We're just enjoying ourselves," thereby refusing to see mocking others and lying as bad characteristics.
That these two characteristics are so widespread and are almost habitual to many people does not alter the fact that they violate Islamic morality and that, consequently, such behavior is never permissible. In addition, if such people would just once listen to their consciences and answer honestly if they really want to live surrounded by people just like themselves, they would see the truth. Nobody wants his own bad behavior to be visited upon himself. And, if he is asked whether or not he wants it, he emphatically rejects it.
To avoid carrying out a difficult task:
People often lie to avoid a difficult task or one that they simply do not want to do. For example, when somebody asks them for help, instead of admitting that they are too lazy or that they do not want to help, they make such untruthful claims as: "I have a lot of work at the moment," "I have a terrible headache," or "I've got a bad back."
In contrast, sincere Muslims do not offer such lies and never refuse any request for help or any job because of unwillingness or laziness. Knowing that in the Hereafter they will have to account for each moment of life in this world, sincere Muslims carry out even the most difficult tasks with greater pleasure and zeal. Sometimes, they may really feel tired or unwilling to do certain things. In such circumstances, they need to exercise their willpower and perform these tasks to the best of their ability, instead of lying. For example, if somebody seeks their help when they are engaged in something that they enjoy, they should think of the rewards in the Hereafter and hasten to provide whatever help they can. Those who do not do so, but lie so that they can stay and enjoy the movie, demonstrate their own weak morality. They neither heed their consciences or performing a more useful task. While they may persuade the person seeking help that they are not well and are not in a position to help, and thus cannot sacrifice their own comfort, Allah sees and knows everything. People forget tomorrow much of what they have done today, but Allah forgets nothing and will ask everyone about their deeds and thoughts in the Hereafter.
Everything in the heavens and everything in the earth belongs to Allah. Whether you divulge what is in yourselves or keep it hidden, Allah will still call you to account for it. He forgives whoever He wills and He punishes whoever He wills. Allah has power over all things. (Surat al-Baqara, 2:284)
To avoid saying: "I don't know":
Some people, due to their high self-esteem and belief in their own superiority, try to prove to those around them that they have no faults. They want to show off their knowledge on every subject. For this reason, they will usually provide an answer even if they know nothing about the subject being discussed.
Admitting their lack of knowledge is difficult, and they just cannot bring themselves to say: "I don't know. I have no information about that." Most of the time they put themselves in an even more demeaning position, because other people recognize these lies for what they are and know that this lying comes from self-conceit.
In one verse, Allah mentions such behavior in clear terms:
You are people arguing about something of which you have no knowledge. Why do you argue about something of which you have no knowledge? Allah knows; you do not know. (Surah Al `Imran, 3:66)
Such behavior is the result of the "morality" of those people who do not heed the Qur'an. In order to have themselves accepted, respected, and listened to, they resort to methods that the Qur'an declares to be immoral. This practice only engenders trouble, tension, and discomfort in this world, and places their eternal life in great danger. Seeking respect and success in this way is a great error and an act of great ignorance, because the only way to achieve what they want in this world and the next is to conform to the Qur'an's morality.
To exaggerate experienced or witnessed events:
Some people exaggerate events and describe things they have not seen as though they had witnessed them. While some do so in order to entertain those around them, others have made it a habit. Without even thinking about why they are doing it, they describe every event differently from the way it happened, add details, and exaggerate it.
For example, when a car injures somebody slightly, they describe it as an accident that caused a major disaster. When they see a large ship, they describe it as being three or four times as large as it really is. Such exaggeration causes others to discount their words. When people want to obtain opinions on any subject, they go only to those who provide accurate information.
Even if such exaggerations are meant to entertain people or as a joke, such behavior is not correct. Those who make such jokes should tell the audience right away, or even at the same time, that they were only telling jokes.
Our Prophet (saas) told his Companions not to tell lies, even if they were only meant to be jokes:
"Woe be on one who speaks and lies in order to make people laugh. Woe be on him [her]." 4
"I make jokes, but I say only the truth."5
To do wrong and deceive others:
People who do not live out the Qur'an's morality may dislike or envy another person—sometimes even a friend—for very petty reasons. As a result of these illogical and self-generated feelings, they want to take their revenge, to a greater or lesser degree, on such a person, even though they might be friends.
For instance, when a liar is going somewhere with his friend, he might not want to tell his friend that his clothing is unsuitable, for that way all of the attention will be on him. In other words, the liar does not want to tell the truth and make his friend look better.
Or perhaps when two friends are working on the same task, one does not pass on useful information or even withholds important information on the excuse that: "That's all there is." In this way, her friend's work is slowed down so that she will look better and win the competition.
On the other hand, because the believers have great respect and affection for one another, they are invariably helpful and supportive. In fact, they want the better and finer things both for themselves and also for their fellow believers. As a result, they never lie to one another, but always offer help and support from the heart. They try to make their friends' appearance as attractive as possible and do whatever they can to help them in their work. This indicates the believers' sincerity and their close relationship with each other.
In a verse, Allah tells us that:
... [Those who] do not find in their hearts any need for what they [their brothers and sisters] have been given and prefer them to themselves, even if they themselves are needy. It is the people who are safe-guarded from the avarice of their own selves who are successful. (Surat al-Hashr, 59:9)
To show off:
One of the most common reasons for lying is to show off to one another. As Allah tells us in the Qur'an, these people are very prone to boasting and showing off:
Know that the life of this world is merely a game and a diversion, ostentation, and a cause of boasting among yourselves, and trying to outdo one another in wealth and children: like the plant-growth after rain that delights the cultivators, but then it withers and you see it turning yellow, and then it becomes broken stubble. In the Hereafter there is terrible punishment but also forgiveness from Allah and His good pleasure. The life of this world is nothing but the enjoyment of delusion. (Surat al-Hadid, 57:20)You are obsessed by greed for more and more until you go down to your graves... (Surat at-Takathur, 102:1-2)
When people who are so given to boasting think that they do not have enough to boast about, they resort to lying right away by pointing to things they do not really own. For example, in order to suggest that a perfectly ordinary item is more valuable than it really is, they boast that they paid quite a bit more for it than they actually did. They also exaggerate their position at work by implying that they hold a higher post, one with greater responsibility, than they actually do.
They do this in the mistaken belief that they will thereby convince others that they possess the same material or moral characteristics as those people who are respected. And so they present themselves as hardworking, philanthropic, and talented people who care about everything and are ready to take on any responsibility. In the Qur'an, Allah has this to say about such people:
Those who exult in what they have done and love to be praised for what they have not done should not suppose that they have escaped the punishment. They will have a painful punishment. (Surah Al `Imran, 3:188)
They speak in an exaggerated manner about other people's interest in, or affection for, them. For instance, they claim that their partners have bought them presents, that their coworkers or bosses have taken a special interest in them, and that they have received a salary increase because no one else can do what they do. Young people often say that they are well-known at school and that they are the most popular people in the school or in their class. Some people lie by claiming that on their birthday or a special occasion that their friends or relatives bought them very expensive presents. All of these lies have the same goal: to show off and to convince others that they are highly valued by those close to them. In other words, they want those people who have not received such valuable presents to envy them and covet their possessions. In fact, these are all worldly values that have absolutely no benefit in the Hereafter. Even though people receive the most valuable gifts in this world, their persistence in such unacceptable behavior will cause them to be deprived of all of their possessions in the afterlife.
A hadith concerning our Prophet (saas) informs us that a woman exhibited behavior similar to that described above. In order to make someone else unhappy and jealous, she claimed that her husband had done things that he had not done and had bought her presents that he had not bought. When our Prophet (saas) heard of this, he said:
"The one who creates a false impression of receiving what one has not been given is like one who wears a garment of falsehood."6
There are countless examples of lies told by people who want to show off to others. Many people exaggerate the truth about their house, car, office, their children's successes, their holiday, and their origins. Since they have made a habit of lying, they lie as a reflex in every conversation. However, because their brains cannot keep track of all of their lies, these change according to subject and place until they finally give themselves away and thus betray and demean themselves.
Always seeking the approval of anyone other than Allah, they do their best to present a likeable image of themselves to others. They believe that they must promote themselves at all times—a belief that requires a great deal of lying. They feel obliged to adapt everything, from their taste in music to their status at work, to impress other people. But such an attempt ultimately fails, with the result that their lies are exposed; they demean themselves, and they live in a state of constant stress, disappointment, and tension. As a result, they derive no pleasure from what they are saying and find no beauty in it. In addition, since their lies cannot satisfy everyone, they try to appeal to the others and attract their attention as well. This resembles a vicious circle from which nothing emerges and which prevents a sincere, comfortable, and tranquil life. In the Qur'an, Allah tells us about those who take deities other than Himself in the following terms:
Allah has made a metaphor for them of a man owned by several partners in dispute with one another and another man wholly owned by a single man. Are they the same? Praise be to Allah! The fact is that most of them do not know. (Surat az-Zumar, 39:29)
To ensure advantage and profit:
Many people commit sins and behave badly in their quest for profit. Such immoral characteristics as disloyalty, selfishness, aggressiveness, jealousy, hypocrisy, and slyness mostly result from a desire for personal gain. One of the most important reasons why people lie is their ambition for personal advantage and profit.
Especially in business, some people believe that lying is absolutely necessary to make a profit. They present their goods as being more valuable than their real worth by lying about the correct price, measure, and amount. In the Qur'an, Allah tells those engaged in business to behave justly and honestly:
Give just weight—do not skimp in the balance. (Surat ar-Rahman, 55:9)
In another verse, Allah reminds dishonest merchants about the Day of Judgment:
Woe to those who defraud [when measuring]! Those who, when they take a measure from people, exact full measure, but when they give them a measure or weight, hand over less than is due. Do such people not realize that they will be raised up on a Terrible Day, the Day mankind will stand before the Lord of all the worlds? (Surat al-Mutaffifin, 83:1-6)
People who do not stand in awe of Allah, believe in the afterlife, and doubt its existence and the accounting after death always regard worldly benefits as being the most important and so can easily fall into sin. They do things that may bring them the punishment of Hell just to secure a momentary or minor gain.
But those who fear Allah out of their awe for Him and are aware that He is watching and listening to them at all times, always remember that they will have to account for every word and deed in the afterlife. They do not lie, regardless of the consequences; rather, they rely on Allah, and trust Him. Even if they suffer as a result, they know that Allah will help them and ease their lot in unexpected ways. In one verse, Allah promises to send ease after difficulties:
Allah does not demand from any self more than He has given it. Allah will appoint, after difficulty, ease. (Surat at-Talaq, 65:7)
In this verse, Allah reveals the good news that He will aid those who follow His words and that difficulties will definitely be followed by ease. Those who try to lie their way out of such difficulties, and thus embark upon the path of falsehood, will meet with far greater difficulties and a harsh punishment in the afterlife.
Those who follow this path should worry about paying hospital charges for an illness that Allah send to them because of the gains they earned and preserved through indulging in lying and low morality. Or, they should worry that everything they have obtained through lying and deceit will be destroyed by a fire or some other natural catastrophe sent their way by Allah. They should not forget that Allah may test people in this world and direct them toward the Qur'an's morality by means of such tests.
As our Prophet (saas) has wisely said: "Falsehood reduces provision."7 In other words, Allah will not bless those who lie and strive for personal gain by cheating others. Rather, He will prevent the comfortable use of what they have gained by sending spiritual and material trials and tribulations.
... [T]hey should carry out the witnessing for Allah. This is admonishment for all who believe in Allah and the Last Day. Whoever stands in awe of Allah—He will give him a way out and provide for him from where he does not expect. Whoever puts his trust in Allah—He will be enough for him. Allah always achieves His aim. Allah has appointed a measure for all things. (Surat at-Talaq, 65:2-3)
Whooever stands in awe of Allah—He will make matters easy for him. (Surat at-Talaq, 65:4)
To win an argument:
As Allah tells us, "more than anything else, man is argumentative!" (Surat al-Kahf, 18:54). When a few people come together, usually they compete in making claims about a particular subject, put forward different ideas, and try to make each other accept these ideas. In these arguments, the aim is usually not to learn the truth and reach the best conclusion, but rather to win the argument by convincing others of one's own ideas and ignoring anything that is wrong with them. Even if one of the parties realizes that he is wrong and is thinking incorrectly, he usually will continue arguing out of arrogance, even though his claims bear no relation to the truth. At this point, most people resort to lying. In order to come out on top, they will begin to talk with "certainty" about an event of which they have no certain knowledge and which they have not witnessed or experienced, produce obviously imaginary scenarios to support their claims, or even resort to slander.
All of these methods are due to the person's arrogance and concern that people might not see them as they wish to be seen. As stated above, arrogance usually drives people into sin, whereas the best and most noble thing for a person to do is to admit that he is wrong as soon as he realizes it. This is the sign of superior morality, because a person who behaves like this first and foremost accepts what his conscience tells him and behaves in a way of which Allah approves while ignoring other people's ideas and reproaches. Contrary to common belief, such people are valued and exalted by people of intelligence and by Allah.
In the Qur'an, Allah advises us as follows:
[Believers are] those who, when they act indecently or wrong themselves, remember Allah and ask forgiveness for their bad actions—and who can forgive bad actions except Allah?—and do not knowingly persist in what they were doing. (Surah Al `Imran, 3:135)
To deceive through "white lies:"
Perhaps you have heard people reply, when asked if they ever lie, that they certainly do not lie, but that they see nothing wrong with telling "white lies" when necessary.
People who do not follow the Qur'an's morality apply rules according to their own opinion and those of the people around them, and in such a way that their own interests are met in all matters. For example, they admit that theft is sinful but say that it is not sinful if the thief steals out of necessity. Some people who know that gambling is forbidden go ahead and gamble anyway, but believe that it is acceptable because they give their winnings to the poor. However, those who heed Allah and guard against evil do nothing that displeases Him or that He has forbidden. The same is true of lying. Those who try to call lying by another name to soften its meaning may convince other people, but Allah has forbidden people to lie, and that includes white lies.
The Qur'an does not accept any of the above rationales for white lies. In addition, those who tell them shape them according to their own opinions about what does and does not constitute a white lie. Of course, their definitions are designed to suit their own advantage. One result of this is that society begins to accept lying as normal, because it gradually begins to count all lies as white lies.
For example, a merchant who tries to sell something to a female customer plies her with false courtesy, tells her that she is beautiful when she is not, that she is well dressed when she is not, and that she is talented and intelligent when she really has no talent or intelligence at all. A man who comes home late uses a variety of excuses to avoid annoying his wife. He says that telling his wife the truth would only make her angry, but that when he tells these white lies, he does not make her uncomfortable and creates no trouble between them. People who tell such lies have no love, respect, or devotion for the person to whom they are told. Furthermore, it is obvious that such people are not honest or trustworthy.
In conclusion, all lying, no matter what it may be called, has been forbidden by Allah, for it destroys trust and loyalty between people and causes people to live insincere lives.
Promising something that the liar knows cannot be performed:
The failure to keep one's word is a common occurrence. Of course, when circumstances change, people might be unable to keep their word even though they very much want to do so and had made their promise in all sincerity. However, Allah warns people against making a promise, while knowing that it cannot be kept, to gain another person's fleeting attention or for any other reason, as follows:
O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do? It is deeply abhorrent to Allah that you should say that which you do not do. (Surat as-Saff, 61:2-3)
Be true to Allah's contract when you have agreed to it, and do not break your oaths once they are confirmed and you have made Allah your guarantee. Allah knows what you do. (Surat an-Nahl, 16:91)
Fulfill your contracts. Contracts will be asked about. (Surat al-Isra’, 17:34)
Mehmed Zahid Kotku, one of the twentieth century's leading Islamic scholars, said the following about making such false promises:
"Failure to keep one's word or promise or to carry out a promised act is falsehood. If a person promises to do something and then does not do it, he is considered a liar. If he makes a promise knowing that he will never attempt to fulfill it, his falsehood is doubled. If he wants to keep his promise, but for some legitimate reason is unable to do so and apologizes, he might be forgiven by the other party. Therefore, when people promise to do something, they should always say:'If Allah wills.' "8
As Kotku points out, making a promise that cannot be kept is falsehood. On the Day of Judgment, every person will be responsible for each of his or her words and acts. Although they may have forgotten such things, Allah does not forget and, on the Day of Judgment, will confront all people with everything that they did while in this world. Believers who are aware of this truth do their best to behave according to the Qur'an's morality. They do not say whatever comes into their heads. When making a promise, they calculate whether or not they can really fulfill it. If there is a possibility that they cannot, they state this openly, explain their reasoning, and take steps to ensure that the person to whom they made the promise will not be placed in a difficult position. When they believe that they can fulfill their promise, and so say "if Allah wills," they keep their word even if doing so harms their own interests. Allah informs us of this particular characteristic of the believers, as follows:
It is not devoutness to turn your faces to the East or to the West. Rather, those with true devoutness are those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, and the Prophets; and who, despite their love for it, give away their wealth to their relatives, to orphans and the very poor, to travelers and beggars, and to set slaves free; and who perform prayer and give the alms; those who honor their contracts when they make them, and are steadfast in poverty and illness and in battle. Those are the people who are true. They are the people who guard against evil. (Surat al-Baqara, 2:177)[Believers are] those who honor their trusts and their contracts. (Surat al-Mu’minun, 23:8)
Out of fear of other people:
People also lie when they are nervous about those around them. For example, a child who breaks a vase lies because he is afraid of his mother. A secretary who mixes up files in the office is afraid of her boss and lies to protect herself. On the other hand, believers only fear Allah and think only about whether they will or will not gain His good pleasure. As a result, they tell the truth whatever the circumstances and put their faith in Allah.
When, for example, they break a valuable object, those who are nervous about other people shy away from being called clumsy or careless. Since they make the great error of setting other people's ideas about them above Allah's approval, they base their decisions upon acquiring other people's approval and so usually lie to cover up their mistakes.
In the Qur'an, Allah warns us that Satan wants people to fear each other and so commands the believers to fear Him alone, as follows:
That was only Satan who intimidated his adherents. But do not fear them—fear Me if you are believers. (Surah Al `Imran. 3:175)Is Allah not enough for His servant? Yet they try to scare you with others apart from Him. If Allah does not guide someone, he has no guide. (Surat az-Zumar, 39:36)
In another verse, Allah refers to the believers as those who "do not fear the blame of any censurer" (Surat al-Ma'ida, 5:54). In all circumstances, the believers rely on and trust Allah and behave according to His will, not according to the opinions of other people.Fearing other people and not doing what is right is a kind of idolatry, for this involves regarding another person or creature as Allah's equal or superior (Allah is surely beyond that), and thus, in effect, granting this creature the status of a deity. Those who are nervous of others and behave according to that person's wishes fall into the trap of idolatry. The believers are aware of this truth and so worship only Allah. The Qur'an relates the words of one believer, as follows:
Am I to take as deities instead of Him those whose intercession, if the All-Merciful desires harm for me, will not help me at all and cannot save me? In that case, I would clearly be misguided. (Surah Ya Sin, 36:23-24)
As we can see, nobody can harm anybody else or say even one word to another person without Allah's permission. For this reason, fearing other people and lying is idolatry, a sin Allah will not forgive (Surat an-Nisa', 4:48). Given this, people who lie because they are nervous of others should repent and take refuge in Allah, because they have sinned and fallen into idolatry.
4. Sunan Abu Dawud Hadiths.
5. Imam al-Ghazzali, Ihya Ulum-Id-Din, 3:115.
6. Sahih Muslim, The Book Pertaining to Clothes and Decoration, Chapter 27, Book 024, No. 5312.
7. Imam al-Ghazzali, Ihya Ulum-Id-Din, 3:120.
8. Mehmed Zahid Kotku, Tasavvufi Ahlak 5 (Sufist Morality 5) (Istanbul: Seha Publications), 166.