The Creation of the Eye
So far, we have covered the eye's structure, the unique and flawless structure of each component working in harmony, and the role of brain in seeing. We've emphasized how the eye, both in its segments and as a whole, is nothing short of a miracle. From the point on, we'll analyze the miracle of the eye's existence.
During our everyday lives, we come across countless eyes—those of parents, siblings, friends, relatives; and of course our own in the mirror. How did each of these equal miracles form?
A few years ago, the very eyes with which you read this page did not exist. The being you refer to as "me" was just a single cell. First you split into two cells, then into four. Millions of further splits followed, until you became a small sphere the size of a finger. Next, upon this ball two black spots appeared. As days passed, these spots became indentations and two unique organs began to develop on their own. From undifferentiated cells, you developed two eyes, each complete with a pupil, lens, cornea, retina, sclera, iris, eyelids, nutritious fluids and billions of blood capillaries. In a matter of weeks, the eyes with which you read these words were created completely. After birth, you opened them to the world for the first time.
To gain a better understanding of the eye's development, look at the development of the human body. As mentioned before, all mammals, humans included, develop from a single cell in the mother's womb. The secret of how this cell develops lies within that very cell, inside a molecule called DNA.
The Codes of Life
DNA contains millions of units of biological code written in a language which only cells can understand. They keep a record of every aspect of a person, from the structure of organs to physical details. One single cell develops into the human body according to the information within the cells' DNA.
Under normal conditions, the process of cell division should result in two identical cells. Therefore, one might expect the million-cell sphere that results to be composed of identical cells. But this is not so. During cell division, differences begin to develop. Some cells become bone; others become nerve cells or eye cells. How can two newly-divided cells, each containing the identical DNA, be so different from each other?
(Figure 3.1). The eyes begin to develop from the first month of pregnancy. Within five weeks, they have already become black rings (left). By the end of the second month, the transparent eyelids are flawless (middle). By the fifth month, the eyelids are completely shut, and covered with a protective oily substance (right). After these phases, the development of the eyelid is complete. One of the world's greatest miracles has just taken place, appearing from a single cell in the mother's womb.
Does not man see that We created him from a drop yet there he is, an open antagonist! He makes likenesses of Us and forgets his own creation, saying, "Who will give life to bones when they are decayed?" Say: "He Who made them in the first place will bring them back to life. He has total knowledge of each created thing." (Surah Yá-Sín , 77-79)
Science has yet to explain how the cells decide to make such distinctions. We do know that if a cluster of cells "want" to be eye cells, to do so, they merely extract the necessary information from millions of lines of DNA. But this raises further questions: How do the cells know they want to be eye cells? How do they find and extract only the relevant "eye code" from millions of lines of DNA?
Besides choosing what kind of cell they want to be, cells also structurally organize themselves to bring about the different complicated organs we possess. How is this organization provided?
Let us consider the eye, made up of many different layers and components. Since different cells form the iris, cornea, pupil, lens and retina, each cell must surely know what it is supposed to do. How did these cells agree among themselves what feature they were going to become? How is it that cells from different layers and components never mix up? How do cells know how many times to divide, and when to stop?
Cells possess an interesting sense of timing. No individual component develops faster or slower than any other. Components that serve a common function, and the blood vessels that feed them, all develop simultaneously.
In other words, every single organ and its components developed from a single cell. We, their completed result, had no say over how this development took place, but merely found ourselves born out of what was once "nothing." When you look in the mirror, it's worth remembering that you had nothing to do with creating yourself. You simply found your eyes, ears, all your organs—and your soul—created and ready for use.
Can Mutations Describe the Creation of the Eye?
Thanks to effective propaganda enforced by some circles around the world, most people believe the theory of evolution has been scientifically accepted as undeniable truth.
But reality is quite the opposite. Evolution is not a scientifically-proven truth, but simply a belief imposed on people through forgery and deception. This theory rejects the basic truth that the universe's perfect system was brought into existence by a Creator. It alleges that all species came to be on their own, through a chain of coincidental occurrences.
Darwin first put forward this theory, but the development of technology in the following decades that allowed us to prove that his ideals are scientifically unacceptable. A change in environmental conditions cannot give new characteristics to body cells. Even if the impossible did happen and severe changes in conditions did bring notable changes to a certain species, such changes couldn't be transferred to the next generation. In short, the theory of evolution collapsed from the start, but it remained a keystone for the rapidly developing anti-religious forces in the world.
To keep that order alive, rejection of creation was crucial, so the anti-religionists came up with a new con: Neo-Darwinism, built upon the concept of Darwin's complete, deliberate rejection of God. Creation was still rejected, but this time, a different course was pursued. According to Neo-Darwinism, tiny mutations are the only way for one species to change into another, because each organism's physical properties are stored in genes, where any lasting change to a species would have to take place. Thus, the mechanism that evolution most relies upon—natural selection—would be rendered useless unless reinforced by mutations. But the theory of evolution still continues to raise question marks.
The first of these comes from the general effect of mutations. Statistics indicate that beneficial mutations are very rare, numbering about one in every thousand. If an existing species were exposed to numerous mutations, the outcome would be quite discouraging for the theory of evolution: A vast number of species with various defects. There would also come a rapid rise in extinction rates. But clearly this is not the case. Almost tragically, evolutionists don't even have any fossils to support their claims of mutation—either beneficial or harmful.
Genetics: The Final Stage of Collapse
(Figure 3.2). The eye can function only if the cornea, iris, pupil, lens, choroid, sclera, retina, muscles, fovea and optic nerves are present at the same time, in their correct positions. This is why it's impossible for the eye to have developed gradually, over a period of time.
Another reason why it wasn't possible to revive the theory of evolution is that micro-mutations have been unable to produce a completely new organ or structure with a new genetic code. This is because mutations can only change existing genetic structures; they cannot add new ones. What's more, any random genetic change is practically always detrimental to the creature experiencing it. Mutations are like earthquakes: They cannot build new cities, they can only destroy existing ones.
So what is necessary to build a new organ or structure? Again, the secret lies in a cell's DNA. In order to construct a new organ, the information for that organ must be added to the DNA. For example, were a liver to appear in a body, all the 2,309 genes associated with it must be completely and flawlessly added into the body's DNA—alongside the 1,794 eye genes, 11,581 lung genes and millions of genetic codes—all at once. Only in this way can later generations also possess these organs. In other words, it's impossible for any organ to develop in a body step-by-step.
Pushing aside the impossible for a moment, let's assume that micro-mutations do allow for genetic additions. Let's also assume that the process takes place in stages, over time, and that these new additions don't disappear in following generations. Even with these assumptions, we cannot adequately explain the presence of complex organs (eyes, wings) and systems (respiratory, digestive) in the body. As we have mentioned throughout this book, all relevant parts need to exist together, at the same time, in order for complex systems to function. Therefore, parts already present in the system would be useless and over time, would disappear because—according to evolutionists—they have no function.
The Eyes as a Dead-End for Mutation
The eye is made up of many different layers and components, but works as a whole, such that the absence of any layer or component renders it blind. The cornea, iris, lens, retina, pupil muscles, pigments, tear glands, disinfectants contained in tears, the cone and rod cells, the nerves taking signals from these cells to the brain and the advanced visual center at the back of the brain—all are integral aspects of the visual system without which we cannot see (Figures 3.2-3.4).
About this topic, an article in the journal Bilim ve Teknik (Science and Technology) wrote the following:
(Figure 3.3). The eye is made up of many different layers and components. Analyzing the eye, it is clear that without tear glands to regularly keep its surface clean, without a pupil to adjust the amount of light hitting the protective cornea, or without the lens to focus light on the retina's 130 million cone and rod cells, the eye would not be able to function at all.
This is true. Analyzing the eye, it is clear that without tear glands to regularly keep its surface clean, without a pupil to adjust the amount of light hitting the protective cornea, or without the lens to focus light on the retina's 130 million cone and rod cells, the eye would not be able to function at all.
Also worth noting is that excavated fossils show us that the eye has remained unchanged. Investigations on the eye structure of certain creatures have revealed that for millions of years, there has been no change to the seeing organs of even cephalopods. For example, a 155-million-year-old octopus fossil excavated in Ardèche in Southern France in 1983 is identical to the octopuses of today. This is solid evidence that the species has remained unchanged—its eyes included—for 155 million years. There has been no evolution involved.25
The Forgery Confession
Even the evolutionists cannot use the theory of evolution to explain the eye's existence. Evolutionary scientists have discovered that the theory does not apply to the eye. Therefore, they've resorted to calling it "the miracle of evolution."
On this matter, Professor Ali Demirsoy, one of Turkey's leading evolutionist scientists, says the following:
As the above quote clearly displays, even evolutionists must admit that the eye is a miracle. But their theory cannot come up with an explanation as to how this miracle emerged. Evolutionists claim evolution to be a "force of nature," and a miracle is something beyond nature. But how can one expect from nature something "beyond nature"? Since there are hundreds of other mechanisms in the human body just as astounding as the eye, shouldn't it be accepted that the human body as a whole is a miracle?
The fact that eye works as a whole, and that it is too interconnected to have "evolved" over time has put evolutionary scientists into a difficult situation. Professor Demirsoy describes this situation, in the same essay, as follows:
It is rather hard to reply to a third objection… How could such a complicated organ possibly come about suddenly, even though it brought benefits with it? For example, how did the lens, retina, optic nerve, and all the other parts that play a role in seeing in vertebrates suddenly emerge? Natural selection cannot choose separately between the visual nerve and the retina. In the absence of a retina, the presence of a lens offers no advantage. The simultaneous development of all the structures for sight is inevitable. Since parts that develop separately are wholly useless, they will both be meaningless, and also perhaps disappear with time. At the same time, their simultaneous development requires the coming together of unimaginably small probabilities.28
Regarding the origin of the octopus's eye, let us also look at Professor Demirsoy's words
There are organs that developed separately from one another through evolutionary development and have in fact no evolutionary ties. For example, the eyes of a mammal and an octopus have virtually identical structures and functions, but have emerged from different embryologic layers. They are therefore regarded as analogous organs.29
As he points out, evolutionists claim that there are no evolutionary ties between a mammal's eyes and an octopus' eyes, that they developed completely independently of each other. Therefore according to Professor Demirsoy, the "miracle of the evolution of the eye" took place separately not only in mammals, but in octopuses, invertebrates and fish as well.
If we put aside the total impossibility of evolution and assume it to be true, there are still further inconsistencies—because the three sets of eyes (invertebrate, squid and vertebrate) would all have to have evolved independently of one another. The same impossible evolution would have to reflect itself in different species at the same geologic period.
Evolutionary biologist Frank Salisbury made this important point:
My last doubt concerns so-called parallel evolution… Even something as complex as the eye has appeared several times; for example, in the squid, the vertebrates, and the arthropods. It's bad enough accounting for the origin of such things once, but the thought of producing them several times according to the modern synthetic theory makes my head swim.30
Using the Neo-Darwinist micro-mutation theory, it seems impossible to explain the presence of eyes, wings, lungs and similar complex organs. Even Darwin himself has confessed that this destroys his theory:
If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.31
A century has passed since Darwin wrote, "the very thought of the eye makes me cold all over," thus admitting he could not explain how eyes fitted into the theory of evolution. Yet to this day, scientists are still searching an evolutionary explanation to what Professor Demirsoy calls "a miracle of evolution."32 It is clear that the eye is no evolutionary miracle, but a miracle of creation, another of God's flawless masterpieces.
Learning to See
Even though they're equipped with visual organs, newborn babies cannot see their surroundings clearly. At first, they can only separate between light and dark. This is why an infant's situation is similar to your moving to a country where they speak a foreign language. At first, anything you hear will be completely incomprehensible. But as time passes, slowly you gain an understanding of these sounds and you get accustomed to associating them with certain phenomena.
A newborn child learns to see in exactly the same way. The first phase of this learning is following objects with the eyes. In a matter of days after birth, the baby can follow a source of bright light with its eyes. A few weeks later, the eye's lens begins to adjust itself, letting the baby focus on nearby objects. Soon, after discovering that it can grasp these objects with its hands, it finds that in order to see objects placed close, all it needs to do is move its eyes a little. Next comes the ability to gaze up and down in order to see high and low-placed objects, and three-dimensional vision. The baby also learns the sizes of objects, letting it compare distances.33 But this is only the start of the visual learning process; not until the child's third year will it achieve a complete visual ability.
In the process just explained, the child effectively teaches itself. But how can a newborn possibly teach itself how to see, completely on its own? God, Who created people and their eyes, gives us the answer in His book. The Qur'an says that humans come out of their mother's womb knowing absolutely nothing; and that sight, hearing and hearts are blessed upon them:
God brought you out of your mothers' wombs knowing nothing at all, and gave you hearing, sight and hearts so that perhaps you would show thanks. (Surat an-Nahl, 78)
How Do We Perceive Light?
Although sight is the one sense that gives us the greatest link with the outside world, many people do not realize that what they see is actually severely limited. Only 10% of the light entering the eye actually reaches the receptive cells. The remaining 90% is either reflected or absorbed by other parts of the eye.34
The human eye is sensitive to only a specific few wavelengths of light. As a result, there are a number of forms we cannot see, including cosmic rays from space, X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, and infrared radiation from the human body. The range of light visible to the human eye falls between ultraviolet and infrared.
The word infrared means "beyond red," and refers to light with a wavelength longer than that of red light. Light energy is given off by every object, and the amount of energy depends on the object's temperature. We cannot see the infrared waves given off by stoves, our own bodies, the world, or even the stars. Were we able to see infrared rays, our vision would be determined by how hot or cold an object is.
The human eye also cannot see ultraviolet or X-rays, which are of even shorter wavelengths. These extremely short wavelengths have high quantum energy and may be dangerous enough to kill.
At this very moment, you are surrounded by thousands of light beams. Your eyes do not see them; thus, you are unaware of them. This is actually a blessing in disguise, because if you could see every possible form of light, the world would become confusing and complex. You would hardly be able to see anything for all the cosmic rays coming from space, and other people and objects would regularly change color, based on their temperature.
On the other hand, if you could see X-rays, then everyone would appear as a skeleton—hardly a pleasing sight. When God created man, He gave him skin and muscles to cover the internal organs, bone structure and circulatory system. Never do we see them, because God chose to conceal these disturbing details and present the human body in the most beautiful form possible.
It is Allah who made the earth a stable home for you and the sky a dome,and formed you, giving you the best of forms... (Surat al-Mumin, 64)
Through his life, man encounters millions of images, the most pleasant of which are images filled with color.
When you look at a landscape, you find the colors and beauty most agreeable. The magnificent color in a field of flowers, for example, seems to calm us down inside. Attractive tones of the sky and sea, and the beautiful artwork of flowers are all due to color.
If there was never anything on the planet that we could call "green," no one would ever be able to imagine the color in his mind. Similarly, we are unable to picture a color beyond the existing spectrum.
Color in Our Minds
What we call color in the outside world is actually the brain's interpretation of differing wavelengths. The difference between a red flower and a blue car is actually the difference in the wavelengths of light that each reflects. Different wavelengths stimulate optic nerves at differing intensities. When these stimuli reach us, our brain interprets them as different colors.
If there were no such thing as color, and if everything was in differing tones of gray, the world would become significantly less exciting. Our enjoyment of the sea, forests, fashion and even food would be drastically reduced.
However, all the colors of nature are created to please and agree with humans. It is a miracle by itself that the concept of color actually exists, but it's a great blessing that these colors are beautifully and harmoniously put to use by God.
The world and its inhabitants; the flowers, fruits and birds; the vast seas and all they contain, including the fish, coral and seaweed are all of different colors, patterns, and shapes. There are billions of such living beings on this planet—they could not have possibly evolved by means of a series of coincidences. How can coincidental occurrences have created the array of colors in a bird's feathers, or a fish's scales? Who created the colors of a peacock's feathers, or the patterns on a tiger's back, or the coral seabed? What makes these aesthetics so appealing to humans?
Imagine that an archaeological dig excavates a chest containing a wonderful painting. No one would assume that the paints on the canvas came together coincidentally to create the masterpiece. Clearly, an artist created the painting, and it is a reflection of a message the artist wanted to convey.
In the same way, it's clear that the landscape, skies, flowers, fruits, plants and animals are created by God in the most beautiful manner possible
Have they not looked at the sky above them: how We structured it and made it beautiful and how there are no fissures in it? And the Earth: how We stretched it out and cast firmly embedded mountains onto it and caused luxuriant plants of every kind to grow in it, an instruction and a reminder for every penitent human being. (Surah Qáf, 6-8)
24. Engin Korur, "Gozlerin ve Kanatlarin Sirri" (The Mystery of the Eyes and the Wings), Bilim ve Teknik (Science and Technology Journal), no. 203, October 1984, p. 25
25."Were you right?," Oxford University Museum of Natural History Timescales; http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/children/fossils/juocto.htm
26. Prof. Dr. Ali Demirsoy, Kalitim ve Evrim (Inheritance and Evolution), Meteksan Publications, Ankara, 1984, p. 16
27. Encarta Reference Library 2003. 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation
28. Prof. Dr. Ali Demirsoy, Kalitim ve Evrim (Inheritance and Evolution), Meteksan Publications, Ankara, 1984, p. 475
29. Ibid, p. 523
30. Frank Salisbury, "Doubt about the modern synthetic theory of Evolution," American Biology Teacher, September 1971, p. 338
31. Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Harvard University Press, 1964, p. 189
32. Prof. Dr. Ali Demirsoy, Kalitim ve Evrim (Inheritance and Evolution), Meteksan Publications, Ankara, 1984, p. 16
33. "Your Baby's Developing Sight," http://www.preventblindness.org/children/baby_developing.html
34. "The speed of human sight, second champ migrant, how terns fly farther," April Holladay, USA TODAY, January 18, 2003