Systems within the Cell
We've examined how protein synthesis started, and came about but for it to come about, the most important need is for raw materials. And in order to participate in protein synthesis, these raw materials need to go through certain processes, to be refined to bring them to a usable state. For example, plastic and many other products are made from oil, but first the oil must go to the refinery, and through many chemical processes, in order to bring it to a state that can be used for production.
The same sort of technology, though much more highly developed, is found in the cell.
The Laboratory in the Cell
Nutrients entering the cell are broken down as a result of a series of extensive chemical reactions, resulting in their becoming raw materials that can then participate in new syntheses. In this way they can be used in totally new ways-not just as amino acids to form proteins, but many other chemical substances that the cell will use in many ways.
One organelle within which these processes are carried out, and which resembles a highly developed chemical laboratory, is the lysosome. Approximately 36 different enzymes in the lysosome have the duty of digesting different nutrients. For example five enzymes take part in protein digestion, four participate in the digestion of nucleic acids, 15 in the digestion of polysaccharides, six have a role in the digestion of lipids, two in the digestion of organic sulphates, and four different enzymes take part in the digestion of organic phosphates. Consider just one enzyme's chemical structure, physical characteristics, complex processes and incredible speed with which these processes are carried out, and then realize that there are 36 different enzymes that have duties in an organelle only 1 micron (a thousandth of a millimeter) in size, and it becomes clear how great a miracle this all is. Such powerful digesters cooperate with each other in such harmony without harming each other or the cell as a whole.
Transport Within the Cell
Products made in the cell and their raw materials are transported through channels called endoplasmic reticula (see Figure 4.1). The ribosomes that carry out protein synthesis are generally placed near this transport line, just as factories are built close to the highway and docks for easier delivery of raw materials.
The Cells' Packaging System
Clearly, every detail in the cell has been especially created by a superior intelligence. For another example of this, look at the packaging facilities within the cell.
One of the most important aspects in manufacturing any product is packaging and transporting it to the consumer. Food especially must be packaged in such a way to keep it from spoiling for as long as possible. While modern technology has found solutions to this problem only in the last few decades, every one of the trillions of cells contains a superior packaging, transportation, and storage system that has been around for thousands of years, ever since man was first created.