Atlas Of Creation - Volume 1-

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CHAPTERS OF THE BOOK

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9 / total: 37

4. Fossil Specimens Discovered in Africa and the Middle East

Fossil Specimens Discovered in Morocco

Morocco map

A large number of fossils from different periods have been discovered in Morocco, well known for its 400-million-year old trilobite fossils. Excavations in the Atlas Mountains and various other areas have revealed Morocco's rich fossil beds.

Most frequently encountered in Morocco are echinoid fossils. Echinoid, the general name for sea urchins, is actually the name given to a broad range of invertebrate marine organisms. There are more than 800 species of these creatures, which generally live on the sea bed, and specimens dating back 450 million years can be found. Echinoids have been in existence for nearly half a billion years, with all their complex structures and flawless mechanisms, which in fact deals another severe blow to the theory of evolution. These creatures, with all their structures fully developed, lived at a time when evolutionists claim that life was supposedly very primitive. And many of them are still alive today, with those exact same structures. They have remained unchanged for hundreds of millions of years and never undergone evolution.


The Atlas Mountains, fossil beds The Atlas Mountains, extending about 2400 kilometers (1500 miles) have rich fossil beds. The highest peak is Jbel Toubkal, with an elevation of 4167 meters (13665 feet). The Atlas Mountains were formed millions of years ago when the continents of America and Africa collided. It is assumed that the Appalachians in North America was the result of a similar geological movement.

Hefalla, fossil, needlefish, starfish A 490- to 443-million-year-old starfish fossil found in Hefalla (left-upper)
A 146-65-million-year-old fossil needlefish, which is no different from the needlefish of our own day. (lower left)

 

fossil, sea urchins

Sea Urchin

Age: 146 to 65 million years old
Size: 5.4 centimeters (2.2 in)
Location: Morocco
Formation: Echinoid Beds
Period: Cretaceous

There is no difference between present-day sea urchins and those that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. The fossil sea urchins illustrated here lived between 146 and 65 million years ago. They show that living creatures did not evolve, but have had the same characteristics and systems since the moment they were created.

 

trilobites, trilobite, evolution

Trilobite

Age: 410 to 360 million years old
Size: 5 centimeters (2 in)
Location: Atlas Mountains, Morocco
Period: Devonian

The first examples of trilobites date from about 530 million years ago in the Devonian fossil record. Because of their complex structure and developed systems, they are difficult for Darwinists to explain. Their sudden appearance in the fossil record about half a billion years ago, together with a very complex eye structure, makes it impossible to explain them in terms of evolution. It is clear that trilobites, like all other creatures, were created by God.

A representation of the living creatures from the Cambrian Period (small picture in the middle)

 

needlefish, fossil

Needlefish

Age: 100 million years old
Size: 203 millimeters (7.9 in); matrix: 113 millimeters (4.4 in) by 185 millimeters (7.2 in)
Location: Ramlia Taouz, Morocco
Period: Cretaceous

This fish, 203 millimeters (7.9 in) long, is an adult, whose details have been well preserved. There is no difference between needlefish that lived millions of years ago and their counterparts living today. Needlefish have survived for millions of years with no change in their structures, showing that the theory of evolution is false.

 

starfish, fossil

Starfish

Age: 420 million years old
Size: 5.7 centimeters (2.3 in)
Location: Ordovician Mecissi, Morocco
Formation: Kataoua Formation
Period: Ordovician

With their thorny exteriors, starfish (phylum: Echinodermata) have survived for hundreds of millions of years. Starfish alive 420 million years ago had the same characteristics as those alive today. This is a fact that evolutionists will never be able to explain, showing that living creatures did not evolve, but were created.

 

theory of evolution, Cambrian, fossil, trilobite

Trilobite

Age: 400 million years old
Location: Morocco
Period: Devonian

The fossil record does not support the claims of the theory of evolution. On the contrary, when we examine the fossil record in the Earth's strata, we see that living things emerged suddenly. The deepest stratum at which fossils have been found is the Cambrian, about 530 million years old. One of the fossils found most frequently in this stratum are those of tribolites. In the world of 530 million years ago, trilobites had eyes composed of many lenses—an excellent structure that allowed them to see to hunt and swim toward their prey. This sophisticated structure has dealt a serious blow to the theory of evolution.

 

sea urchins, sea urchin, fossil

Sea Urchin

Age: 146 to 65 million years old
Size: 3.5 centimeters (1.4 in)
Location: Morocco
Formation: Echinoid Beds
Period: Cretaceous

The oldest examples of sea urchins date from the Ordovician Period. They have not changed in about half a billion years, which proves that these creatures did not evolve.

 

sea urchins, sea urchin, fossil

Sea Urchin

Age: 95 to 72 million years old
Size: 2.5 centimeters (1 in)
Location: Midlet, Morocco
Period: Late Cretaceous

Sea urchins living millions of years ago were no different from those alive today. They have undergone no structural changes in at least 72 million years. This shows that the theory of evolution is false.

 

sea urchins, sea urchin, fossil

Sea Urchin

Age: 95 to 72 million years old
Size: 4 centimeters (1.6 in) by 4.5 centimeters (1.8 in)
Location: Taouz, Morocco
Period: Late Cretaceous

There is no difference between sea urchins that lived 95 to 72 million years ago and those alive today. Sea urchins, that have not changed in all these millions of years, are proof that living things did not evolve.

 

Sand dollars, Sand dollar, fossil

Sand Dollar

Age: 100 million years old
Location: Taza Province, Morocco
Formation: Continental Sandstone Deposits
Period: Cretaceous

Sand dollars, sea urchins, starfish, crinoids and sea cucumbers are all species that belong to the phylum Echinodermata. Sand dollars have survived for some half a billion years and have struck a severe blow to the theory of evolution. Their structure has not changed for millions of years, which invalidates the theory of evolution's claims that they developed stage by stage from other living things.

 

starfish, fossil

Starfish

Age: 500 to 440 million years old
Size: 8.6 centimeters (3.4 in)
Location: Morocco
Formation: Hefalla Sandstone Formation
Period: Ordovician

This starfish fossil is about 500 million years old—a rare specimen whose characteristics have been very well preserved. The starfish's characteristic five arms have come down to the present time unchanged. There is no difference between starfish that lived half a billion years ago and the starfish of today. Like hundreds of thousands of other fossils, this one also shows that living things did not evolve and have undergone no change for hundreds of millions of years.

 

fossil, sea urchin

Sea Urchin

Age: 95 to 72 million years old
Size: 2.5 centimeters (1 in)
Location: Midlet, Morocco
Period: Late Cretaceous

Sea urchins that lived 95 to 72 million years ago are among the millions of fossils that prove that evolution did not take place. These fossils are exactly like today's sea urchins, and are a proof that God created living things.

 

fossil, sea urchin

Sea Urchin

Age: 146 to 65 million years old
Size: 3.8 centimeters(1.5 in)
Location: Morocco
Formation: Echinoid Beds
Period: Cretaceous

This fossil of a sea urchin, obtained from the Echinoid stratum in Morocco dating from between 146 and 65 million years ago, is one of the countless proofs of creation. There is no difference between today's sea urchins and those that lived millions of years ago.

Fossil Specimens Discovered in Lebanon

Lebanon map

Lebanon's geological structure dates from the Cretaceous and Jurassic periods (146 to 65 million years and 206 to 144 million years ago). Fossils obtained from Lebanon generally belong to these periods. In particular, much of the Lebanese mountains consist of sedimentary rocks that are ideal for the preservation of fossils. Rock strata close to the surface contain large numbers of coral and sponge beds, as well as the fossil skeletons of a range of Jurassic crustaceans. In addition to Cretaceous marine fossils, amber and plant fossils have also been obtained.

Lebanon's fossil beds are some of the world's most important sources of fossils. Hajoula, Haqil and An-Nammura are particularly rich. Fossils of more than 250 fish species have been discovered in these beds, of which more than 150 have been described. Vertebrate fossils discovered in Lebanon generally belong to the Cenozoic Era (65 million years ago to the present day).

All these fossils show that living creatures have never changed over the course of millions of years, in other words that they never underwent evolution. The fossil record reveals that living things that existed hundreds of millions of years ago are identical to today's specimens and totally invalidate the claims made by Darwinists. These scientific findings demonstrate that God, not evolution, created all living things.

Haqil, fossil beds Excavations made in Haqil, where rich fossil beds exist, once again display that assertions of the theory of evolution are baseless.

Haqil, fossil beds In order for the fossil not to be damaged, the rock in which the fossil is encased should be broken carefully. Pictured above are the excavation area in Haqil and the studies made here.
lübnan'da bulunan fosil

A 146- to 65-million-year-old shrimp and fish fossil, uncovered in Lebanon

 

sharks, fossil, shark

Shark

Age: 95 million years old
Size: 180 millimeters (7 in); matrix: 205 millimeters (8 in) by 135 millimeters (5.3 in)
Location: Haqil, Lebanon
Period: Middle Cretaceous, Middle Cenomanian

The general details of the fins and cartilaginous skeleton of this fossil of a small shark have been preserved—another proof that living things did not undergo evolution. There is no difference between today's sharks and those that lived millions of years ago.

 

eel, fossil

Eel

Age: 95 million years old
Size: 58 millimeters (2.2 in) (if straightened out); matrix: 56 millimeters (2.2 in) by 65 millimeters (2.5 in )
Location: Haqil, Lebanon
Period: Middle Cretaceous, Middle Cenomanian

There are more than 400 species of eels in the order Anguilliformes. That they have not undergone any change in millions of years once again reveals the invalidity of the theory of evolution.

 

flying, fish, fossil

Flying Fish

Age: 95 million years old
Size: 28 millimeters (1.1 in) across pectoral fins, 47 millimeters (1.8 in) in length; matrix: 75 millimeters (2.9 in) by 70 millimeters (2.7 in)
Location: Haqil, Lebanon
Period: Middle Cretaceous, Middle Cenomanian

This flying fish fossil, which is identical to present-day specimens, prove that living things have not undergone a process of evolution. These vertebrates have survived unchanged for millions of years. This demolishes the claim of "stage–by-stage evolution," which is the basic foundation of Darwinism.

 

nurse shark, fossil

Nurse Shark

Age: 95 million years old
Location: Haqil, Lebanon
Period: Cretaceous

The nurse shark is a species that generally inhabits subtropical waters. Like other species, these sharks have never undergone evolution. The fact that there is not the slightest difference between nurse sharks that lived 95 million years ago and those alive today is one of the most significant proofs of this.

This fossil pair—negative and positive—is 95 million years old.

 

Arthropoda, shrimp, fossil

Shrimp

Age: 127 to 89 million years old
Size: Matrix: 8.1 centimeters (3.2 in) by 10.9 centimeters (4.3 in)
Location: Hajoula, Lebanon
Period: Middle Cretaceous, Cenomanian

This specimen shows a fossilized shrimp and two fossilized fish. The fish's fins and bone structure have been well preserved. Shrimp belong to the phylum Arthropoda. The oldest known fossil comes from the Jurassic Period (208 to 146 million years ago). These fossils show us that shrimp have not changed in hundreds of millions of years and that they did not pass through any intermediate stages of development. In other words, they did not evolve, but were created.

 

flying, fish, fossil

Flying Fish

Age: 100 million years old
Size: 26 millimeters (1 in) across pectoral fins, 120 millimeters (4.7 in) in length; matrix: 180 millimeters (7 in) by 90 millimeters (3.5 in)
Location: Haqil, Lebanon
Period: Middle Cretaceous, Cenomanian

This fossil of a flying fish was found in the Haqil limestone deposits. The fish has been very well preserved, showing all its external characteristics. The fish is 12 centimeters (4.7 in) long, and its fins extend to 26 millimeters (1 in) in length. There is no difference between contemporary flying fish and those that lived millions of years ago. This shows that these creatures did not evolve, but were created.

 

flying, fish, fossil

Flying Fish

Age: 95 to 72 million years old
Size: 2.5 centimeters (1 in) by 4.5 centimeters (1.7 in) ; matrix: 6 centimeters (2.4 in) by 8 centimeters (3.2 in)
Location: Hajoula, Byblos, Lebanon
Period: Upper Cretaceous

Another proof that living things did not undergo evolution gradually is the flying fish fossil shown here. This one lived between 95 and 72 million years ago, and there is no difference between it and the flying fish of today. These fish have wing-like pectoral fins and a long tail which allow them to glide above the water's surface.

 

eel, fossil

Eel

Age: 95 to 72 million years old
Size: 10.2 centimeters (4 in)
Location: Haqil, Lebanon
Period: Upper Cretaceous

An eel fossil alongside another fossilized fish. Eels usually live in shallow water and belong to the order Anguilliformes. Some eels live in deep water (4000 meters­[13123 feet]).They may vary in size between 10 centimeters (4 in) and 3 meters (9.8 feet) and may weigh up to 65 kilograms (143.3 pounds). This fossilized eel is no different from eels living today. They have not undergone any changes in 95 to 72 million years, which proves that these creatures did not go through a process of evolution.

 

eel, fossil

Eel

Age: 146 to 65 million years old
Size: 8 centimeters (3.2 in) by 15 centimeters (6 in)
Location: Hajoula, Lebanon
Period: Middle Cretaceous, Cenomanian

This eel fossil measures 8 centimeters (3.2 in) by 15 centimeters (6 in). The fossil's head is very well preserved, and the details on its body can be made out. These eels, which lived millions of years ago, are no different from eels living today. The 146- to 65-million-year-old eel illustrated here is proof of this.

 

fossil, evolution, Shark

Shark

Age: 75 million years old
Location: Byblos, Haqil, Lebanon
Period: Cretaceous, Cenomanian

Shark fossils are often found in the mountains of Lebanon. Sharks belong to the cartilaginous class of fish. The skeletons of cartilagenous fish do not contain calcium, but are composed of cartilage tissue. Their only calcium deposits are in their teeth, and sometimes in their spines. For this reason, fossils of sharks' teeth are more commonly found than fossils of their skeletons.

The oldest shark fossil so far discovered dates back about 400 million years. As with other living things, this shows that sharks have not changed in hundreds of millions of years. Contrary to what evolutionists claim, sharks did not develop in stages from other species, but came into being all at once with all their structures complete. In other words, they were created.

This fossil pair—negative and positive—is 75 million years old.

 

Scyllaridae, slipper lobster, fossil, evolution

Slipper Lobster

Age: 98 million years old
Location: Lebanon
Period: Cretaceous

The slipper lobster (family: Scyllaridae) is a slow-moving crustacean, about 40-45 cm (15-18 in) long. Slipper lobsters living today have the same characteristics that they had millions of years ago. They have not undergone the slightest change in the intervening millions of years. The 98-million-year-old slipper lobster fossil shown here corroborates this fact.

Madagascar map

Fossil Specimens Discovered in Madagascar

Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, lies in the Indian Ocean off the East African coast. This area contains 5% of the world's plant and animal species, 80% of them unique to Madagascar. The island's eastern shore contains short, steep cliffs. Tsaratanana in the North is a mountainous region, some of these mountains being volcanic in nature.

Geological research shows that 165 million years ago, Madagascar was part of Africa, but later began breaking away from the continent. Paleontologists carrying out excavations in the region have unearthed large numbers of fossil bird, mammal and marine creatures from the Mesozoic Era (248 to 65 million years ago).

As with all other fossil discoveries, those obtained from Madagascar reveal major contradictions between the theory of evolution and the actual fossil record. Fossils prove that it is impossible to account for the origin of life in terms of the theory of evolution. Species that emerge suddenly in the geologic strata and remain unchanged over the course of hundreds of millions of years demonstrate that living things never underwent evolution, but were created.


Madagascar In Madagascar, having both rain forests and deserts, many fossils pertaining to the various eras of geologic history are uncovered. These fossils reveal that living beings have remained the same for hundreds of millions of years.

nautilus, Sand dollar, fossils This nautilus, 114 million years old, is no different from those living today. (left)
Sand dollar fossils dating back 172 to 168 million years. (right)

 

Coelacanth, fossil, evolution

Coelacanth

Age: 240 million years old
Location: Ambilobe, Madagascar
Period: Lower Triassic

The coelacanth, a 400-million-year-old fish, represents an impasse for the theory of evolution. This fish has not undergone any changes in 400 million years. The fact that it has preserved its earliest physiological structures over this length of time—despite continental shifts, climate changes and changes in environmental conditions—baffles evolutionists.

The coelacanth once again invalidates the theory that living things evolved and that they undergo a constant process of evolution.

The coelacanth fossil seen here is in two sections. In this type of fossil, mirror-image traces of the creature appear on the two split halves of the stone.

The coelacanth is a large fish, about 150 centimeters (5 feet) in length, its body covered with thick scales that resemble armor. It belongs to the boned fish classification Osteichthyes, and the first fossil specimens were discovered in strata belonging to the Devonian Period. Until 1938, many evolutionists imagined that this fish used its two pairs of fins to walk on the sea bottom and that it was an intermediate form between marine and terrestrial animals. To support their claim, evolutionists pointed to the bony structure of the fins evident in the coelacanth fossils they had obtained.

However, a development in 1938 completely disproved the claims regarding intermediate species, when a living coelacanth was caught off the coast of South Africa. This creature had been thought to have become extinct at least 70 million years ago. Research showed that the coelacanth had undergone no change in 400 million years.

 

bivalve, fossil, evolution

Bivalve

Age: 208 to 146 million years old
Location: Majunga Basin, Madagascar
Period: Jurassic

There is no difference between the bivalve shown, which lived between 208 and 146 million years ago, and bivalves alive today. This is proof that they underwent no evolutionary process and that this is not an intermediate form.

 

Nautilus, fossil, evolution

Nautilus

Age: 114 million years old
Size: 55 millimeters
Location: Madagascar
Period: Cretaceous, Albian Stage

A 300-million-year-old nautilus, a 150-million-year-old nautilus and a nautilus living today are the same in all respects. The specimen shown here, a 114-million-year-old nautilus fossil, indicates that these creatures have remained the same for hundreds of millions of years.

 

Nautilus, fossil, evolution

Nautilus

Age: 113 to 97 million years old
Size: 1.9 centimeters (0.7 in) at the apex of its oval, and 5.3 centimeters (2.1 in) across
Location: Mahajanga, Madagascar
Period: Cretaceous, Albian Stage

Looking at fossils, we see that there is no difference between creatures that lived hundreds of millions of years ago and their living counterparts. One such life form is the nautilus, which has undergone no changes since the moment they first came into existence. The 113- to 97-million-year-old fossil shown here illustrates this.

 

Clypeasteroida, Sand Dollar, evolution, fossil

Sand Dollar

Age: 172 to 168 million years old
Location: Madagascar
Period: Jurassic, Bajocian

The fossil sand dollar shown here is between 172 and 168 million years old. There is no difference between it and today's sand dollars. This fossil shows that these creatures did not evolve, but were created.

 

Nautilus, fossil, evolution

Nautilus

Age: 113 to 97 million years old
Size: 6.6 centimeters (2.6 in) at the apex of its oval, by 5 centimeters (2 in) across
Location: Mahajanga, Madagascar
Period: Cretaceous, Albian stage

The fact that a nautilus that lived between 113 and 97 million years ago and a present-day nautilus are identical once more shows that the theory of evolution is a huge deception.

 

Nautilus, evolution, fossil

Nautilus

Age: 114 million years old
Size: 55 millimeters (2.1 in)
Location: Madagascar
Period: Cretaceous, Albian Stage

The nautilus has dealt a severe blow to the theory of evolution, having undergone no change in 300 million years. The 114-million-year-old nautilus shown here is completely identical to present-day specimens.

 

bivalve, evolution, fossil

Bivalve

Age: 208 to 146 million years old
Location: Majunga Basin, Madagascar
Period: Jurassic

Marine crustaceans have maintained the same characteristics in the fossil record for hundreds of millions of years. One example is the double-shelled bivalve. The one shown here lived between 208 and 146 million years ago; it represents a challenge to the theory of evolution because it is the same as present-day bivalves.

 

Nautilus, fossil, evolution

Nautilus

Age: 114 million years old
Size: 70 millimeters (6.7 in)
Location: Madagascar
Period: Cretaceous, Albian Stage

The nautilus is an invertebrate commonly found in the seas today. These creatures reveal the invalidity of Darwinism. There is no difference between a present-day Nautilus and one that lived 114 million years ago.

 

Nautilus, fossil, evolution

Nautilus

Age: 114 million years old
Size: 17 centimeters (6.6 in)
Location: Madagascar
Period: Cretaceous, Albian

The nautilus has survived for about 300 million years and has preserved its physiological structure during all that time. The fossil shown here is of a 114-million-year-old nautilus. The fact that the creature has not changed for hundreds of millions of years is living proof that evolution never happened.

 

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