Red Terror in Asia
Though born in Europe, Communism's first revolution took place farther east, in Russia. In the first half of the 20th century, it moved even farther to eastward until 1949, when China—the world's populous country—fell to guerillas led by Mao Tse-tung. For ten years, Mao's militants engaged in attacks against government forces across China to bring about the world's second largest Communist revolution. The results of this second revolution were the same as in the original Bolshevik revolution: criminal assaults, mass murders, torture, famine, impoverishment, degeneration, resulting in an introverted, depressed society of fear.
After Lenin, Mao brought the second important change to Communist theory, bringing innovations to Marxism in three important areas:
The reason behind these three different approaches was the conditions in which Mao found himself. In China, where almost the whole population was composed of peasants with a conservative, nationalist frame of mind, Mao had no other choice than to establish "nationalist peasant socialism." Unavoidably, Mao gave priority to the peasants, applied the model of the "country guerilla," and organized among the peasantry.
One of the millions of victims
Chinese Communism developed and came to power with Stalin's support. But Red China's brutality was worse than Stalin's.
This explains not only why Maoism was different from Leninism, but why it became an even more savage, barbarous and rigid ideology. The advent of Maoism added to Communism—which was already pitiless and bloodthirsty—a greater degree of ignorance, fanatic nationalism and hostility to culture and civilization. Total calamity was the result. Maoism was the worst kind of Communism; in fact we can say it was the worst of the worst.
Maoism influenced not only China but later passed to Cambodia (in the time of the Khmer Rouge), North Korea, and even Albania. Maoism gained power with Stalin's help, and Soviet-Chinese relations were very good in Stalin's day. But this relationship fell apart in the 1960s, and the two countries became enemies. Sino-Soviet rivalry divided the Communist world, separating allies of China from those allied with the Soviet Union.
What Maoism brought upon China, and those Communist countries that followed China, was as dark and bloody as the Russia of Lenin and Stalin. But as the "worst of the worst," Maoism created much more terrible regimes.
In the following pages, we'll examine the red savagery that embraced Asia.
Darwin's Visit to China
Communism is really a European ideology, first proposed by European philosophers and put into effect for the first time by European activists. It's really nothing more than the result of the materialist hostility towards religion that took root in Europe. It is curious that this ideology reached and took root in an isolated country like China, so distant from Europe in every way. But if we look at China's recent history, a familiar pattern emerges: the coming of Communism to China meant the coming of atheism which took root thanks to Darwinism.
Until the end of the 18th century, China was an inward- looking society, isolated from Western culture. The coming of English merchants in the 19th century, brought many changes to the country. With them, these merchants brought a substance called opium, unknown in China before. Consumption of opium spread like an epidemic in Chinese society and was the cause of two wars between England and China. Finally, England preponderated over China. Hong Kong and other important Chinese cities fell under English influence.
Darwin, Huxley and Galton were three influential evolutionists who led some of the Chinese intellectuals to Fascism and Communism.
In this way, English imperialism entered China and with it, came Darwinism that gave imperialism scientific support. In the 19th century, the materialist and Darwinist ideas that had dominated Europe began spreading quickly among Chinese intellectuals. In The Encyclopedia of Evolution, Richard Milner writes:
Just as young Turks were captivated by Western materialist ideas at the end of the Ottoman period, so in China, ideologues appeared who adopted materialism and Darwinism. As a result, the Chinese Empire that had lasted thousands of years was abolished in 1911 and replaced by the Republic of China. Those who founded the republic, no matter how anti-Western their rhetoric and policy may have been, adopted the same racist and Social Darwinist understanding that had justified Western imperialism. In an article in the American magazine New Republic, senior editor Jacob Heilbrunn writes:
The racist thinker Herbert Spencer, mentioned in the quotation above, was a contemporary of Darwin, whose theory he adapted to social science. Among other violent, unjust and cruel ideas, Spencer proposed the superiority of the European races and the need for continual conflict among races and nations, suggesting that society should not assist its poor and weak members.
Darwinism fostered Communism and Fascism in China.Fascist leader Chiang Kai-Shek was influenced by Darwinism..
Among Chinese intellectuals influenced by Darwin and Spencer were Yen Fu and Ting Wen-chiang, whose ideas greatly influenced the foundation of modern China. In Chinese Communism and the Rise of Mao, the American historian Benjamin Schwartz emphasizes Yen Fu and his Darwinist ideas significantly. According to Schwartz, Yen Fu takes the Western ideologies and theories he reads such as Spencer, and sees them as prescriptive ways to transform society and achieve the goal of wealth and power.59 Schwartz states that Darwin's theories do not merely describe reality. They prescribe values and a course of action.60
Ting Wen-chiang was another important Chinese ideologue and leader in Communism, whose views were founded on nothing other than Darwinism. Ding was the most important representative of the "New Culture" movement that influenced China in the 1910s and '20s. This movement's most important feature was its opposition to Confucianism, the religion of the Chinese people, and its seeking to replace it with a materialist world view. (Ironically, the New Culture movement was a leading inspiration of both Mao's Communism and its rival, Chiang Kai-Shek's Fascism.)
In Ting Wen-chiang: Science and China's New Culture, the American historian Charlotte Furth examines Ting Wen-chiang, the dean of the New Culture movement, in considerable detail. According to her, Wen-chiang merely translated the ideas of evolutionist ideologues such as Darwin, Huxley and Spencer into Chinese. For this reason, Furth even refers to Ding as the "Huxley of China."61 (Huxley, Darwin's biggest supporter, was known in his day as "Darwin's bulldog.")
Ting Wen-chiang studied zoology and geology at Glasgow University in Scotland. Returning to China in 1911, he exerted great efforts to spread materialist and Darwinist ideas in the newly-founded Chinese Republic, even supporting the theory of eugenics proposed by Francis Galton, Darwin's cousin.62 (Eugenics proposed the disposal of those within a race who were sick or disabled, thus ensuring so-called universal advancement by the "mating" of the healthy ones. This theory was applied most widely in Nazi Germany.)
James Reeve Pusey, a Harvard professor of history and an important commentator on the New Culture movement, says:
As a result of the spread of Darwinism in China, the emergence of this kind of Chinese ideologues at the beginning of the 20th century gave birth, first, to the Chinese nationalist Kuomintang party with its fascist tendencies, then to Chinese Communism. In an article written in the periodical New Scientist, Michael Ruse, a Canadian philosopher wrote:
"China And Charles Darwin"
Darwinism's influence on 20th century China was so great that the famous Harvard historian, James Reeve Pusey, devoted a book entitled China and Charles Darwin to this one subject. In this book he relates how Darwin's Origin of Species, published in England and translated into Chinese 36 years later in
1895, spread with incredible speed among Chinese intellectuals, with immense social and political effects. in the preface to his book, Pusey writes:
In China and Charles Darwin, Harvard University historian James Reeve Pusey explained that Darwinism had great influence in China and prepared the foundation for both Communist and Fascist ideas.
In the same book, Pusey examines the currents of thought developing in China in the first half of the 20th century and tells how they established the foundation for Maoism. One of the people he considered was Liang Chi-chao, was a well-known writer of the time who was captivated by Darwinism and materialist philosophy.
China and Charles Darwin relates how Darwinism was responsible for establishing China's disputatious revolutionist culture and its great influence on bringing Maoism to power:
His analysis clearly shows how Darwinism became the basis of Chinese Communism. For thousands of years, China had been an isolated empire. In a matter of ten years it became Red China, and the motive power behind this change in thinking was Darwinism.
But what did Darwinism do to prepare China for Maoism?
How did Mao Become a Communist?
A Chinese Communist propaganda poster.
Up to now, we've examined the change in ideas that prepared China for Maoism. But a personal dimension of this also needs to be examined: Mao himself.
Mao Tse-tung was born in 1893 to a family in a southern China village. From his childhood he always wanted to see Beijing and imagined living there. At age fifteen, he began to read young people's magazines published in the capital, and especially liked New Youth, a publication of the New Culture movement. This magazine was filled with articles by Darwinist ideologues such as Yen Fu and Ting Wen-chiang.
In 1918, Mao visited the city he always wanted to see. There he made friends with Yang Changzhi, a teacher from Beijing University who recognized the young man's talent and got him a job at the university library. Mao began his job of cataloguing and dusting the books and cleaning the rooms. He became friends with Li Dazhao, the director of the library, whose articles in New Youth he had read and liked. Li Dazhao had Communist ideas; for this reason, the university library became known as the Red Room. Chinese Communist theoreticians often met there, where Mao heard the names of Marx, Engels and Lenin for the first time.
After reading Darwin, Mao became an ardent Communist
He inherited Darwinist ideology from Sun Yat-sen.
But the man who brought the young Mao to embrace Communism was not from Beijing. After spending a few months at the Beijing library, Mao went to Shanghai and met Chen Duxiu, a classical scholar and a friend of Li Dazhao who had made a special study of Darwin.68 This Communist leader's most striking feature was that he was an ardent Darwinist. He can be considered as China's most important advocate of Darwinism and became Mao's most important tutor. Years later, Mao was to say, "He had influenced me more than anyone else."69
In her book Mao, Clare Hollingsworth, a historian at the University of Hong Kong said that Mao was greatly influenced by the Darwinist views of Chen Duxiu and even in the 1970s he looked back nostalgically to the studies of Darwin he did in his youth.70
Chen Duxiu educated Mao in the scientific aspects of Darwinism; on the political level, he was influenced by Sun Yat-sen, the Chinese leader of the time. Interestingly, Sun Yat-sen, regarded as the founder of modern China and of the Kuomintang (the Nationalist Chinese Party), was also a Darwinist. In an article in The New Republic, the American researcher Jacob Heilbrunn writes:
After a bloody revolution, Mao announced the establishment of the People's Republic of China.
Brainwashed by the ideas of Darwin and Marx, Mao became an active, passionate Communist from 1920 onward. With eleven friends who thought as he did, he founded the Communist Party in Shanghai in 1921. Afterward, he strengthened the Communist Party by various alliances, skirmishes, guerilla battles and propaganda. For a while, the Communists under Mao cooperated with the Nationalist Party, but in the second half of the 1920s, each side became hostile to the other. Mao relocated his militants in Jiangxi province in southern China and there formed a "liberated zone" outside the central authority.
The struggle between the two sides lasted for years. After World War II, the Communist "liberated zone" continued to grow, to the point that it encompassed almost all of China. In 1949, Mao and his Communists entered Beijing and proclaimed the "People's Republic of China." With this, the world witnessed the second Communist Revolution after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917—a second revolution at least as bloody as the first.
The "Great Leap Forward" and the Great Famine
A Red Chinese propaganda poster: Communist ideology—begun by Marx and Engels, continued by Lenin and Stalin—was finally taken over by Mao. What Marx and Engels actually transmitted to Lenin, Stalin, and Mao was Communism's "well of bloodshed." Lenin and Stalin murdered 50 million people; Mao, 60 million.
Until 1949, Mao had conducted a long guerilla war, organizing a campaign in the countryside and in the mountains against the central administration, which controlled the large cities. In order to do this, he established good relations with the villagers, promising them land and freedom and assuring them that once Communism was established in China, they would enjoy great prosperity and happiness. The peasants believed him and supported him and his guerillas.
But after Mao came to power, everything changed. In the first years after the revolution, he wanted to take over the whole of China and set up Communist authorities in every area. In the meantime, thousands were arrested as "class enemies" and hanged in public. In the mid-fifties, Mao designed a system similar to Stalin's collectivization and put it into effect in 1958. This was called the "Great Leap Forward," but all it succeeded in doing was to bring torture and a great famine upon the Chinese people.
The Great Leap began with slogans about doubling all of China's agricultural and industrial production. Working hours were increased, and machines worked endlessly. Workers weren't permitted to inspect or repair the machines, and within a short time they began to break down.
Agriculture suffered disaster from lack of intelligent planning. With the idea that the "abolition of private property would increase production," all peasants were forced to surrender their land to cooperatives. The confiscations of Stalin's Russia were repeated. Moreover, Mao punished peasants in some parts of China for not accepting collectivization voluntarily. Their punishment was being starved to death.
Within a short time, the Great Leap disintegrated into a great famine. Like the famine that Stalin fabricated in the Ukraine, this famine was also man-made. The Black Book of Communism comments on China in the period of the Great Leap:
Mao began with the slogan of "peasant socialism." Before coming to power, he'd promised Chinese peasants land, food, and protection. But his power subjected them to levels of pain and torture never to be seen in modern history:
A Communist Party militant delivering Communist propaganda in the years of the Great Leap.
The death rates accross the country reached to incredible levels:
In the years of the Great Leap, many Chinese who resisted Mao's savagery were brutally executed. Many were killed by a bullet to the back of the head.
In the course of the Great Leap, an eighteen-year-old Red Guard, who was pursued by the authorities and took refuge with his family in a village in Anhui, described Maoism's cruel face:
The Influence of "Evolutionist Science" in Mao's Famine
In the years between 1958 and 1961, as a result of Mao's Great Leap policy, all of China suffered what's accepted as the greatest, most deadly famine in history. It is estimated that as a result, as many as 40 million died. (Such numbers equaled and even surpassed the entire population of many countries of that time.)
What was the cause of this disaster? As mentioned above, Mao's militants forced the peasants into collectivization and founded communes of between 100 and 300 families—which greatly reduced agricultural productivity. In some areas, Maoist administrations punished peasants with deliberate starvation.
A propaganda poster for the Great Leap depicts Mao as an agricultural genius in a rich field. However, Mao's reliance on and implementation of Lysenko's methods resulted in an agricultural disaster.
We examined Trofim Lysenko before. As a result of the nonsensical "proletarian science" of the Stalin era, Soviet biology was entrusted to Lysenko, an ardent evolutionist. Lysenko rejected the science of genetics adopting instead a theory by Lamarck, a leading Darwinist who believed in the "inheritance of acquired traits." When Lysenko's myth was applied to Soviet agriculture, the losses were immense.
But Mao did not learn from this disaster of the Stalinist period—on the contrary he and his supporters, educated from their youth on a strict Darwinism, continued to believe in "proletarian science" and to distort real science, according to the requisites of the theory of evolution. The Great Leap imitated Lysenko's model, and Chinese peasants were forced to perform agriculture according to principles of "evolutionist science."
Jasper Becker, Beijing bureau chief of South China Morning Post, in his book entitled Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine, relates in detail the Lysenkoist agricultural enterprise put into effect during the Great Leap. These attempts, each of which resulted in a separate disaster, were:
Later, the same agricultural policy was put into effect in Communist Cambodia and North Korea, with the same results: a great lack of productivity, famine and mass death. Blindly and without awareness or intelligence, Communists applied Lysenko and Stalin's "Communist leap in agriculture," because the theory of evolution at the base of their materialist philosophy demanded it.
Mao's Darwinist Tyranny
The theory of evolution is closely related to all the disasters Mao brought upon China. As we have seen, the great famine of 1958-61 resulted from the application of Lysenko's model of "evolutionist science." Meanwhile, Mao and the Communist establishment ruled China with incredible cruelty and mercilessness. What kind of horrifying thinking lies behind a policy that deliberately leaves people to starve and forces them into cannibalism?
No doubt this relates to the whole Communist view of human nature. Earlier, the idea that human beings are animals lay at the basis of Soviet terror, and the same applies to China was mentioned. With Darwinist prejudice, Mao viewed those opposed to Communism as "animals" and so, Maoists were not at all touched by the anguish of people they regarded as a herd. To them, this was a logical, normal operation of nature. After revealing how low harvest levels had fallen in the Great Leap, The Black Book of Communism gives Mao's view in this regard:
Elsewhere, he writes:
Immediately after the Great Leap, on January 30, 1962, Mao explained the parallels between the Chinese Communist Party and Darwin in a speech delivered before members of the Party:
In these words, Mao compared his party's efforts to Darwin's enterprise and expressed his respect and admiration for him. At first, he stated, few accepted his Communist Party's ideas, just as few people accepted the theories of Darwin. But that would not change the validity of either man's ideas. But just as in Darwin's case, Mao's ideas were all myths.
In the Great Leap, between 30 and 45 million people died because of the famine. Many peasants who resisted collectivization died of torture. Tens of thousands, because they showed the slightest negative attitude towards Communism, were labeled "class enemies," arrested and tortured. Chinese prisoners were treated like animals and finally executed.
In these prisons, the savagery of Chinese Communism was especially evident.
Mao's China had totally become a society of fear. The majority of the millions accused of an offence, even with no concrete evidence of a crime, were arrested and imprisoned as opponents of Communism. Later they were executed in huge ceremonies held in the open squares of large towns. An estimate of between 6 and 10 million people were unjustly killed on Mao's directives. About 20 million "counter-revolutionaries" spent a great part of their lives in prison as enemies of the state. But as The Black Book of Communism says, living in these prisons was often worse than death:
Nien Cheng, a former inmate of a Shanghai prison, describes the the pysical violence in the Chinese prisons:
This savagery's main purpose was to instill fear, first in opponents of the regime and then in society in general. Another goal was to destroy people's personalities, to dehumanize and "bestialize" them by fear and torture. By these methods, Mao wanted to turn of China's entire population into a herd of animals he might control.
The important turning point that gave life to Mao's totalitarian project was China's "Cultural Revolution."
The Cultural Revolution: China's Communal Folly
The Cultural Revolution was a murderous frenzy designed to destroy every idea and every person opposed to Communist ideology. The propaganda poster on the right depicts this feast of bloodshed: anti-Communists being crushed by the fists of Red Communists.
Following the disaster of the Great Leap, Mao announced that he was "high above daily politics." He decided to withdraw from matters of state to concentrate on so-called "greater and more important issues." Mao's silence ended in 1966. He announced that the Chinese revolution had not yet achieved success because he, the "great helmsman," had not completely instilled Communism in people's minds; that even in the highest echelons of the state, there were elements who did not understand Communism. A cultural revolution was needed to correct this situation.
The shock of the Cultural Revolution was to destroy the whole Chinese state and society. Mao's suggestions had great influence on the ignorant youth in the low ranks of the Communist Party. They became known as the Red Guards and began wreaking terror in all parts of the country. Singing "The East is Red," they marched through the streets, ready to display their aggression and arrest everyone they thought was anti-Communist. Thousands of high-level bureaucrats, university professors, scientists and intellectuals were arrested, humiliated after undergoing horrible tortures, and executed.
Even Liu Shaoqi, one of Mao's closest friends and a former chairman of the People's Republic of China, was arrested on Mao's orders, publicly beaten, subjected to long torture and thrown into a cell where he received no medical attention and died in agony. Deng Xiaoping was one of Mao's oldest comrades, among those who were going to take over the rule of China after Mao. His son Pufong, a brilliant physics major at Beijing University, was interrogated by the Red Guards. During the process, he was sodomized, beaten to a pulp, and later thrown out the window of the interrogation chamber. Although he survived, his back was broken and he spent the rest of his life in a wheelchair with an impaired hearing.85
A witness describes the inhuman torture inflicted on a university professor during the Cultural Revolution:
University Professors Being Executed
The Cultural Revolution also applied the "human bestialization" policy implemented earlier under Lenin and Stalin. Opponents identified as "enemies of the people" were forced to imitate an animal in public. Some professors under arrest had their hands tied behind them and, after being thrown to the ground, were forced to "graze," pulling up grass with their teeth. In August 1967, the Beijing press declared that anti-Maoists were "rats that ran through the streets" and should all be killed.87
THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION: A MADNESS THAT TERRORIZED CHINA
The Red Guards recognized Mao's Red Book as their only guide. During the Cultural Revolution, they overwhelmed the country with blood and fear. Propaganda posters also depicted the Red Guards' barbarism. In the poster at top, university professors, arrested and tortured by the Red Guards, are depicted as parasites that degenerate society.
Young members of the Red Guards brainwashed by Mao's Communism..
The Cultural Revolution was a mass folly never before seen in the history of the world. The Red Guards arrested, tortured and executed tens of thousands for praying, just listening to music, or feeding a domestic animal. People were sent into a trance in which they supported every manner of savagery; they would shout their support as they watched people being murdered. The Black Book of Communism describes this savagery in these words:
In Red China, political executions were everyday occurrences. Many were accused of "not following Mao's way" and executed in the streets...
The Red Guards' only source book was the Little Red Book containing the words of Mao. Every one of them knew this book by heart; moreover, those who did not know it were denounced as "class enemies" and could be beaten or even executed on the spot. Even the most normal and legitimate activities could be declared "anti-Communist" and punished:
Another political execution in China: A woman named Wang Shouxin was arrested as an opponent of the regime,bound by soldiers, forced to her knees and killed with a single bullet. As a rule, the money to buy the bullet for executions like these was taken from the victim's family.
The Cultural Revolution reached such levels of insanity that finally the army had to intervene and reestablish order in the country. Throughout the 1970s China tried to bandage the wounds inflicted by the Cultural Revolution and repair its damage. Mao died in 1976, joining more than 60 million who were already dead, victims of torture, slaughter and benighted ideology.
China's Savagery in Occupied Countries
Another innocent Chinese executed during the Cultural Revolution.
The scourge of Maoism was not limited to the Chinese people. Countries occupied by China or people forced to live under permanent occupation were also targets of Red brutality. One of these areas was the "Uyghur Autonomous Region" in the west of China; in other words, the Uyghur Turks living in Eastern Turkistan. Because these Turks were both Moslems and an ethnic minority, the Beijing administration targeted them and subjected them to systematic genocide from the time Mao came to power in 1949.
The Uyghurs were not allowed to perform their religious obligations. Schools and places of prayer were closed. In many areas, religious leaders were arrested and a large number of them murdered. Without taking any precautions, China carried out 46 nuclear tests in the Uyghur Autonomous Region, starting in 1964. As a result, cancer among Uyghurs has risen by a remarkable degree, with many children born dead or with physical defects.
To murder the Muslim Uyghur Turks, the Chinese employed various methods: Between 1949 and 1952, 2,800,000 Uyghurs died; between then and 1957, 3,509,000 died; between 1958 and 1960, the number was 6,700,000 and in the four years from 1961 to 1965, 13,300,000 Uyghurs were murdered. In eastern Turkestan, families were forbidden to have more than one child. Any woman who became pregnant in contravention of this law had her child aborted.
These measures, begun in Mao's time, are still in effect. As a result of forced migration, family planning and killings, the Uyghurs in Eastern Turkestan have become a minority. Due to the policy of assimilation in effect since 1949, the proportion of Muslims in the Uyghur Autonomous Region has fallen from 75% to as little as 35%. Today, more than 25 million Muslims in eastern Turkestan live under Chinese oppression. In an area where thousands of Muslim are political prisoners, many of those arrested are not heard from again.
Propaganda posters showed Mao as the red sun rising over China. In reality, Maoism brought famine and torture and made China a Darwinist arena in which "the weakest" died. Mao murdered 60 million. On the right, a photograph of him in the last years before his death.
Another country that fell under the Communist regime's brutality is Tibet, occupied by the Chinese army just one year after the establishment of a Communist regime. With the acquiescence of its people, Tibet became an autonomous region bound to China. But Chinese oppression of the Tibetans has gradually increased. The Chinese administration has obliged Tibetan peasants to sell their produce at very low prices, put Chinese immigrants in all of the country's important institutions, and answered the least resistance with a cruel and bloody response. The Dalai Lama, who for years has inspired Tibetan resistance to China, describes the brutality committed by Communist China on his people:
International sources reported in detail China's brutality in eastern Turkestan. A special report published by Amnesty International stated that the goal was to eradicate the Uyghur Muslims through torture and execution. China has subjected Eastern Turkestan's Muslim Uyghur population to decades of genocide. As a result of nuclear tests deliberately conducted in the region, large numbers of children are born deformed.
The Savagery Of Red China Continues
(upper left) Communist China Has Slaughtered 210,000 Innocent People In Nuclear Tests Alone.
(upper right) SAVAGERY IN CHINA
(lower left) As soon as a baby was born in China it was strangled by officials
(lower right) ANOTHER MASSACRE OF MUSLIMS IN CHINA
Astate with a Darwinist-Communist way of thinking oppresses its fellow citizens and kinsmen, lets them starve and leads them into misery and poverty, and murders them—all for its own advantage.To Russia and China, two modern examples of this brutal concept of the State, what is important is not the people's comfort and well being, but the strengthening of their own rule.Towards the end of the year 2000, a newborn baby was taken from its family by Chinese officials and strangled while the family watched. Similar atrocities continue to be committed against Muslims in Chinese-occupied Eastern Turkestan. The starting point for this brutality lies in Darwinism's doctrine that human beings are animals unworthy of respect, that life is a field of struggle.To be rid of all this horror, and in order for people to live in peace and well-being, this Darwinist ideology must be wiped out.
Cambodia—the Pinnacle of Red Insanity
Pol Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge,murdered three million Cambodians.
Communism, already a pitiless, contentious, cruel and bloodthirsty ideology, reached its worst expression of advanced brutality in Maoism. To understand more clearly why Maoism's "traditional" Far Eastern brutality was joined to Communism, we must look at another example from the Far East—the Cambodian regime of the Khmer Rouge, which came to power with Chinese support and adopted Maoist methods..
Cambodia, a small and poor country, is located between India and China. This region is also called Indo-China. For centuries the majority of its people eked out a living by agriculture, whose principal element is the rice paddies throughout the country. But between 1975 and 1979, these rice paddies became "killing fields." About three million people in this country of nine million were murdered. Some were shot in the head, others had their skulls crushed by axes, or left to starve. Still others were smothered with plastic bags put over their heads.
The perpetrators of this unparalleled brutality were the Cambodian Maoists, or the Khmer Rouge, a Communist party founded and led by a Maoist by the name of Pol Pot. For years the Khmer Rouge had been organizing in Cambodia's forests and dreaming of coming to power. Finally in 1975, their dream came true. They established a regime that was more cruel and totalitarian than Stalin's Russia or Mao's China—a pinnacle of Communist insanity.
For the good of the country, the party decided that a Communist's sole duty was to work in the rice paddies as much as possible. Cambodia's entire population was forced to work in those fields. Tens of thousands living in the cities—statesmen, bureaucrats, teachers, intellectuals—were driven to the villages and made to work on collective farms under very severe conditions. To avoid work, say prayers, or even to eat the smallest piece of food from what was being collected without permission was regarded as "rebellion against the state," and under this pretext, people were killed every minute.
The Khmer Rouge came to power after a bloody civil war. These photos were taken during the bloody civil war as the Khmer Rouge attacked the capital, Phnom Penh. This was the harbinger of terrible brutality.
The Khmer Rouge called their party Angkar, and to the millions of people working themselves to exhaustion in the fields gave the impression that "Angkar is always watching you." A Cambodian who managed to escape the Khmer Rouge brutality describes those who lived in the so-called "democratic" Cambodia:
Obviously, the Khmer Rouge put into effect the "human bestialization" project that lay at the base of Communism. As the above quote shows, people were forced to be like oxen ploughing a field. At the same time, much importance was given to eradicating such concepts as religion and morality. The Black Book of Communism describes the measures the Khmer Rouge took to destroy the love between the family institution and its members:
1-After the Khmer Rouge took power, nearly the whole population of Phnom Penh was forced to leave the city
These measures are actually nothing more than Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' interpretation of the origin of the family, put into action. Marx and Engels viewed human beings as animals evolved from monkeys, for whom concepts of religion, morality and family were not necessary. These were "superstructure institutions" that came to be as the result of economic relations. A Communist society promised to destroy these concepts. So the Khmer Rouge's project was nothing else than to put life into the nonsense proposed by Marx and Engels.
The Khmer Rouge wanted to destroy the religion and the family, bestialize human beings and make them like "oxen that plough the fields". Khmer Rouge once again applied measures used earlier by Lenin, Stalin, and Mao by deliberately letting people go hungry, thereby destroying their wills and personalities. Later, after being fed by Angkar, they would come to worship the Khmer Rouge as gods:
A Cambodian witness stated:
The hostility to "love, beauty, aesthetics and culture" that had showed itself in Mao's Cultural Revolution reached the point of insanity with the Khmer Rouge. Anyone who combed his hair, took a little care in his appearance, or even wore glasses was regarded as an "enemy of the people." The excerpt below is taken from a speech made by the director to the prisoners in a Khmer Rouge camp:
Victims Of Khmer Rouge Brutality
The Khmer Rouge attached numbers to some of those they were about to execute and took their hotographs. Thousands of mass graves were found in the Khmer Rouge's "killing fields." The bones in the photo on the right belong to Cambodians suffocated with plastic bags over their heads.
The Maoist psychopaths who seized Cambodia with China's support murdered almost three million innocents. At first, those to be killed were shot in the head. Later, however, this was decided to be a "waste of bullets," so more brutal methods were resorted to. Besides "saving bullets," these methods were preferred so that Khmer Rouge militants could satisfy their sadism. Fifty-three percent of victims had their skulls crushed with iron bars, axe handles, or sometimes hoe handles; six percent were hanged or asphyxiated with plastic bags, and five percent had their throats slit.97
In 1979, the Khmer Rouge regime came to an end when Vietnam occupied Cambodia. To show the brutality of the earlier regime, the Vietnamese dug up the rice paddies known as the "killing fields," exhumed the bodies, and put them on display. The bones and skulls of all the thousands killed by the Khmer Rouge are now on display in a museum in the capital, Phnom Penh.
Communism, which found its "scientific" foundation in a book by Charles Darwin, took shape from the nonsense of Marx and Engels, became a world power through the brutality of Lenin and Stalin, reached its pinnacle of madness under Mao, and showed its real face to the world in the savagery practiced in Cambodia.
North Korea and Vietnam
In Asia, Communist brutality was not limited to China and Cambodia. The regime of North Korea also inflicted merciless terror on its own people. An estimated 1.5 million were killed under the dictatorship of Kim Il Sung. Hundreds of thousands were subjected to torture in North Korea's terrible prisons. The Black Book of Communism describes how prisoners were treated like animals:
North Vietnam under Communist rule, 1968
A camp guard who fled to Seoul describes the torture and executions inflicted in the concentration camps of North Korea:
Another characteristic of the North Korea's Communist regime was its adoption and cruel implementation of the eugenics theory, which was another product of Darwinism. As we saw earlier, eugenics was proposed by Darwin's cousin Francis Galton, and appeared as a scientific enterprise at the beginning of the 20th century. The aim of eugenics is to sterilize people who are sick, disabled, or of a particular race and to have healthy people reproduce. It was imagined that in the end, this process would bring a healthier race into being. The first country to implement eugenics as an official policy was Nazi Germany. At first, Hitler gathered congenitally ill and disabled people into "sterilization centers," and later had them killed.
North Korea's Darwinist-Communist regime implemented this cruelty under the name of "accelerating evolution." The Black Book of Communism described eugenics, North Korean style:
Ho Chi Minh, the dictator of North Vietnam.
Vietnam was another bloody Communist dictatorship in Asia. North Vietnam carried on a long war first with the French and then with the Americans. In 1975 it took South Vietnam and formed a single united Communist Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh, the founder of North Vietnam, and those who followed him did not hesitate to torture their own people and subject them to severe oppression. Between 1975 and 1977, a Vietnam writer opposing the regime wrote a letter in which he described the conditions of the country:
Conditions inside the prisons are unimaginably bad. In the Chi Hoa prison, the official Saigon prison, 8,000 people under the old regime were kept in conditions that were universally condemned. Today there are more than 40,000 people in the same prison. Prisoners often die from hunger, lack of air, or torture, or by their own hand…
Similar instances of cruelty were suffered when Vietnam occupied Laos in 1975 and turned it into a Communist regime. The Pathet Lao Communists gained strength in this poor country in the middle of Indo-China and, after they came to power, subjected opponents of regime to oppression. As a result, tens of thousands became refugees.
The Maoist Danger Continues
Throughout its history, far-eastern Asia has been a scene of serious severe armed clashes, blood feuds, and savage acts of vengeance. With the advent of Communist ideology, which supported violence and regarded brutality as legitimate and even necessary, the result was disastrous. Communism turned the rice paddies into killing fields. In far-eastern Asia, moreover, its hostility to culture and civilization was even more marked. Its unthinking ideology rejected civilization in favor of ignorance, ugliness, and monotony.
Interestingly, many organizations and currents of thought would blindly adopt such a cruel and primitive ideology and spread it throughout the world. Today, a number of Maoist terror organizations and ideological groups are operating in various countries. Maoists claim that the collapse of the Soviet Union revealed the "failure of a false interpretation of Communism" and proved that Maoism is right. They close their eyes completely to Mao's brutality, crimes, famines and terrible acts of cruelty and try to argue that this benighted ideology is the only alternative for the world's future. Maoists organize particularly in underdeveloped countries, implementing their outmoded theory they call "Third Worldism," and try to seduce these countries into the darkness of Communism.
Clearly, these Maoists aren't satisfied with the tens of millions whom their namesake tortured to death. They want more bloodshed.
In this book's last section, we'll examine Maoism's subtle growth in greater detail.
89. Ken Ling, Miriam London ve Ta-ling Lee, La vengeance du ciel: un jeune Chinois dans la Revolution culturelle, Paris, Laffont, 1981 , s. 20-23. (This scene took place in Xiamen had an outstanding high school.); The Black Book of Communism, s.690-692