Chapter 2. The History of Bolshevik Savagery
The 20th century was the bloodiest period in human history, with world wars, genocide, concentration camps, the development of chemical and nuclear weapons, bombings, guerilla wars, and terrorist activities unheard before. As a result of this savagery, the number of dead is estimated in the hundreds of millions.
Why was the last century so bloody? First, advancing technology led to the development of weapons much more lethal than earlier ones. But the second and most important reason was that ideologies caused these weapons to be employed with terrible cruelty. The 20th century saw the violent harvest of the various "isms" that were founded in the 19th.
Communism, the bloodiest of these "isms," is by far the cruelest and also the most widespread. The number murdered by Communist regimes or organizations in the past hundred years stands at roughly 120 million. Just for the sake of this ideology, these people were removed from their homes, worked to death in concentration camps, exiled to perish on the Siberian steppes, subjected to the horrible tortures in the most horrible prisons, executed by brainwashed Communist militants, strangled, had their throats cut, or starved to death in deliberately-created famines.
The savagery of this red terror began first in Russia during the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. It spread throughout the newly formed Soviet Union and from there, to eastern Europe, China, Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, some Latin American countries, Cuba and Africa.
Lenin's Bloody Revolution
Karl Marx never led any political party. He was only a theoretician who tried to cram all of human history into the context of the rules of dialectical materialism. From his point of view, he interpreted the past and made predictions about the future, of which the greatest prediction was global revolution. He promised that the workers would destroy the capitalist system, after which a classless society would result.
In decades that passed since Marx's death in 1883, the revolution he'd announced so confidently never took place. In the capitalist countries of Europe, workers' living and working conditions improved, however slightly, abating the tension between the workers and the bourgeoisie. The revolution wasn't happening, and it wasn't going to happen.
In the early 1900s, another important name appeared in Russia. Vladimir Ilich Lenin was gradually rising to prominence in Russia's Social Democratic Party, which Marxists had founded. Lenin gave Marxism a whole new interpretation. In his view, the revolution couldn't happen spontaneously, because the European working class had been sedated by what the bourgeoisie had offered them and in any other countries was no working class worth mentioning. To this problem, Lenin offered a militant solution: Marx's predicted revolution wouldn't be carried out by the workers (the proletariat, in Marxist literature), but by surrogates—a Communist Party of professional revolutionaries with military training, acting on the workers' behalf. By using armed intervention and propaganda, "the Communist Party" would bring about a political revolution. From the moment their authoritarian regime seized power, it would establish what Lenin called the "dictatorship of the proletariat." It would clear away opposition, abolish private property, and ensure society's advancement towards a Communist order.
With Lenin's theory, Communism would become the ideology of a group of armed terrorists. After him, hundreds of Communist Parties (or workers' parties devoted to bloody revolution) sprouted throughout the world.
What methods did the Communist Party intend for its revolution? Lenin answered this in both his writings and his actions: The Party would shed as much blood as possible. In 1906, eleven years before the Bolshevik Revolution, he wrote in Proletary magazine:
At the beginning of the 1900's, an important divergence of ideas occurred in the Russian Social Democratic Party. The group led by Lenin supported revolution by violence; while another group wanted to bring Marxism to Russia by more democratic means. The Leninists, though small in numbers, used various methods of pressure to gain the majority and became known as the Bolsheviks, the Russian word for majority. The other group was called the Mensheviks, which means minority.
The Bolsheviks began to organize following the way Lenin had outlined, through such methods as assassinations, confiscation of government money, and robbing official institutions. After many years of banishment, the Bolsheviks began their Russian Revolution of 1917. Actually, that year saw two separate revolutions. The first came in February; when Tsar Nicholas II was removed from the throne and imprisoned with his family, and a democratic government was established. But the Bolsheviks didn't want democracy; they were determined to establish a dictatorship of the proletariat.
In October 1917, their awaited revolution took place. Communist militants led by Lenin and Trotsky, his chief assistant, seized first the former capital, Petrograd ("Peter City," named for Peter the Great), and then Moscow. Battles in these two cities established the world's first Communist regime.
After the October Revolution, Russia was swept by a three-year civil war war between the so-called White Army, assembled by Tsarist generals, and the Red Army led by Trotsky. In July of 1918, Lenin ordered Bolshevik militants to execute Tsar Nicholas II and his family, including his three children. In the course of the civil war, the Bolsheviks did not hesitate to commit the bloodiest crimes, murders, and tortures against their opponents.
Both the Red Army and the Cheka, a secret police organization founded by Lenin, inflicted terror on all parts of society opposed to the revolution. A book entitled The Black Book of Communism written by a group of scholars andpublished by the Harvard University Press, describing Communist atrocities throughout the world, has this to say about Bolshevik terror:
The Bolsheviks had decided to eliminate, by legal and physical means, any challenge or resistance, even if passive, to their absolute power. This strategy applied not only to groups with opposing political views, but also to such social groups as the nobility, the middle class, the intelligentsia, and the clergy, as well as professional groups such as military officers and the police. Sometimes the Bolsheviks subjected these people to genocide. The policy of "de-Cossackization" begun in 1920 corresponds largely to our definition of genocide: a population group firmly established in a particular territory, the Cossacks as such were exterminated, the men shot, the women, children and the elderly deported, and the villages razed or handed over to new, non-Cossack occupants. Lenin commpared the Cossacks to the Vendée during the French Revolution and gladly subjected them to a program of what Gracchus Babeuf, the "inventor" of modern Communism, characterized in 1795 as "populicide."15
In every city they entered, the Bolsheviks killed those not open to their ideology and committed acts of excessive savagery intended to instill fear. The Black Book of Communism describes the Bolshevik atrocities in Crimea:
The Russian historian and socialist S.P. Melgunov, in his book The Red Terror in Russia, says that Sevastopol was turned into a "city of the hanged" because of the extermination campaign against surviving witnesses:
The Bolsheviks undertook to exterminate those who did not want to adopt Communism. Tens of thousands were executed without a trial. Many opponents of the regime were sent to concentration camps, collectively called the "Gulag," where prisoners were worked almost to death under very harsh conditions. Many never left these camps alive. In the period from 1918 to 1922, they murdered hundreds of thousands of workers and villagers who had opposed the regime.
The Harvard historian Richard Pipes investigated secret Soviet archives to research his book, The Unknown Lenin. Revealing that Lenin gave countless orders to have people tortured and murdered, he ends his book with this evaluation:
With the evidence currently available it becomes difficult to deny that Lenin was, not an idealist, but a mass murderer, a man who believed that the best way to solve problems—no matter whether real or imaginary—was to kill off the people who caused them. It is he who originated the practice of political and social extermination that in the twentieth century would claim tens of millions of lives.20
Pavlov's Dogs and Lenin's Plans for Human Evolution
It's important to understand the reason behind Lenin's violence and that underlay further examples of Communist tragedies. Why did Lenin and other Communist leaders we'll examine later—Stalin, Mao, and Pol Pot—become crazed murderers?
The reason is the materialist philosophy they held, and its view of human beings. As we saw at the beginning, Communism is basically materialist philosophy applied to history, in total harmony with Darwin's theory of evolution—which, in turn, is the adaptation of materialist philosophy to the natural world. Some basic elements of this perverse philosophy can be outlined as follows:
1. A human being is composed only of matter, with no spirit or soul.
2. A human is a highly evolved species of animal. Essentially, there is no difference between human beings and animals. The only difference between a human being and other animals is that his environment has tamed him.
3. In nature and in human society, the only unchanging law is the one of conflict. Conflicting interests result in struggle. At the end of any struggle, it is natural—even necessary—that one side lose, suffer and die.
4. Therefore, from the Communist point of view, for any development to take place—for example, for the "revolution" to succeed—it's inevitable, even necessary, that many people will suffer, be subjected to torture, and die.
5. To legitimize these convictions, Communism—and every other ideology that adopts a materialist philosophy—resorts to destroying a society's faith in God. Actually, the aim of materialism is to alienate society from its belief in God and in religious and moral values, and bring into being a mass of human beings who consider themselves an assortment of soulless animals. In this way, these ideologues believe that they can control the masses, establish their own power, and prepare a legitimate foundation for any immorality or cruelty they wish to commit.
Given that Communism regards human being in this way, it follows that its major efforts have been towards "bestializing" them—beating them like wild animals, "training" them by instilling fear and inflicting pain and, when necessary, cutting their throats.
Very clearly, Lenin accepted this materialist-Darwinist philosophy that regards human beings as animals. After speaking privately with Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, the Russian scientist famous for his experiments on the conditioned reflexes of animals, Lenin tried applying Pavlov's methods to Russian society. In his book, A People's Tragedy: A History of the Russian Revolution, Orlando Figes writes about Lenin's desire to "educate" the Russian people as an animal trainer would, and how the roots of this ambition lie in Darwinism:
Trotsky, an important theoretician of Communist ideology and Lenin's most important associate, agreed with Lenin's views about "the transformation of human nature" that had their origin in Darwinism. As Trotsky wrote:
Along with Lenin and Trotsky, other Bolsheviks believed that human beings were an animal species, nothing more than an agglomeration of matter. Because they saw no value in human life, millions of persons could easily be sacrificed for the sake of the revolution. According to Richard Pipes's The Unknown Lenin, "For humankind at large Lenin had nothing but scorn:the documents confirm Gorky's assertion that individual human beings held for Lenin 'almost no interest,' and that he treated the working class much as a metalworker treated iron ore." 23
Lenin's Policy of Deliberate Starvation
Nearly all Communist regimes of the 20th century have subjected their peoples to starvation. In Lenin's time, famine brought death to five million. From 1932 to 1933, in Stalin's time, the same disaster happened again but with a much wider scope; more than 6 million people died as a result of it.As we will see in the following pages, millions died as a result of famine in Mao's Red China and Pol Pot's Cambodia.
Today, with supermarkets, bakeries, pastry shops, and restaurants all around us; famine seems an alien concept. When we do hear about famine, most often we think of it as a period of temporary hunger. But the famines in Russia, China and Cambodia was a prolonged condition that lasted for months, even years. Apart from grain and rice that villagers could grow to feed themselves, all produce was snatched from their hands, leaving them nothing else to eat. People ate all the vegetables and fruit that they used to collect for sale, and all the animals they could slaughter. When this supply quickly ran out, they would resort to boiling leaves, grass and tree bark. After several weeks of continual hunger, their bodies would grow weak and become emaciated. Some would eat stray cats and dogs and other wild creatures, including insects. Soon, wracked with pain, people would start to die, one after another, with no one to bury them. Finally would appear famine's worst aspect of all: cannibalism. People would start to eat corpses first, then attack each other, snatching children to slaughter and devour. In line with Communist philosophy, they would become bestialized indeed, and human no longer.
This was the goal of the Communist regime. Unbelievable as it might seem, it happened first in the 20th century, in Bolshevik Russia under Lenin's leadership.
In 1918, shortly after the Bolsheviks came to power, Lenin decided to abolish private property. His decision's most important result was the nationalization of land once owned by villagers. Bolshevik militants, Cheka police agents, and Red Army units forced their way into farms all over Russia and, under threat of arms, confiscated the produce that was the only source of food for villagers already living in harsh conditions. A quota was established that every farmer had to give to the Bolsheviks, but in order to fill it, most farmers had to surrender all the produce they had. Villagers who resisted were silenced by the most brutal methods.
In order to have not all their wheat seized, some farmers hid a portion in storage. The Bolsheviks regarded this kind of behavior as a "betrayal of the revolution" and punished it with incredible savagery. On February 14, 1922, an inspector went to the region of Omsk and described what happened there:
Lenin became enraged when he saw that quotas set for the villagers were not being met. Finally in 1920, he imposed a terrible punishment on the villagers in some areas who were resisting the confiscations: These villagers would have not only their produce taken, but their seeds as well. This meant they couldn't plant new crops and would certainly die of hunger. From 1921 to 1922, famine caught 29 million Russian individuals in its grip; and five million of them died.
When news of the famine reached Western countries, they organized an aid campaign to help ease the disaster. It almost succeeded, but it came too late. The Bolsheviks, wanting to conceal the utter disaster of their agricultural policy, forbade the publication of any news about the famine, consistently denying that it was happening. In his book, A Concise History of the Russian Revolution, Richard Pipes writes:
What was the aim of this policy? Lenin wanted to strengthen the Bolshevik regime's economy by seizing villagers' produce and realize the Communist dream of abolishing private property. But in deliberately subjecting his fellow Russians to famine, Lenin also had another purpose: Hunger, he knew, would have a devastating effect on their morale and psychology. He wanted to use famine as a tool to destroy people's faith in God and instigate a movement against the church. The Black Book of Communism describes Lenin's state of mind:
A letter Lenin sent to members of the Politburo on March 19, 1922, shows he wanted to use hunger as a method to break the bond between religion and the masses, to numb their reactions and thus facilitate his planned assault against religious institutions:
Lenin's cruel methods are the first instance of Communist savagery. Stalin and Mao, the dictators who came after him, only increased the scope of the horror.
Lenin's own death is quite telling. He suffered his first stroke in May 1922. On December 16, 1922, he suffered another major attack. Half paralyzed, he was confined to bed. In March of 1923, his illness worsened significantly and he lost the ability to speak. Afflicted by terrible headaches, he spent most of 1923 in a wheelchair. In the final months of his life, those who saw him were horrified at the frightful, half-mad expression on his face. He died of a brain hemorrhage on January 21, 1924.
The Bolsheviks mummified Lenin's body and specially preserved his brain, which they considered to have great value. They placed his body in a tomb, built in the style of a Greek temple, in Moscow's Red Square, where it was visited by crowds of people. Lines of visitors would look at the corpse in dread.
Their dread was to increase in years to come. Joseph Stalin, Lenin's successor, was even more cruel and sadistic. In a short time, he established the greatest "reign of terror" in modern history.
How Did Stalin Become a Communist?
Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili was born in 1879, in a poor family in Gori, a small town near Tbilisi in Georgia. He began to use the name of Stalin, which means "man of steel" in Russian, after 1913.
His mother was a religious woman. She she used all her strength to rear her son to be a priest, so she enrolled him in a church school in Gori. He graduated after five years there, and entered the seminary in Tblisi to begin his studies to become a priest of the Georgian Orthodox Church.
During this period, however, Stalin read a few books that changed his world view. Up to then, he had been the devout son of a religious mother, but he lost his faith in God and religion and became an atheist after reading Darwin's The Origin of Species.
In his book, Stalin and the Shaping of the Soviet Union, the Oxford University historian Alex de Jonge shows Darwin's vital role in shaping Stalin's youthful outlook. According to Jonge, he was "a theological student who had lost his faith; Stalin would always maintain that it was Darwin who was responsible for that loss."28 Stalin's adoption of Marxism happened not long afterward. Jonge states that Stalin often emphasized this point in his private conversations.
In his book Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives, the English historian Alan Bullock compares these two men, saying that, in his youth, Stalin was very influenced by the works of Karl Marx and Auguste Comte, which he read in Russian translations.29
Actually, this deception happened not only to Stalin, but to the majority of a generation of Russian students and other young people. The myths in scientific garb proposed by Darwin, Huxley, and Lamarck led many young Russians to become atheists. In A People's Tragedy, A history of the Russian Revolution, historian Orlando Figes says, "The scientific materialism of Darwin and Huxley ... had the status of a religion among the Russian intelligentsia during Lenin's youth."30 Figes relates how Semen Kanatchikov, a young worker who later joined the Bolsheviks, abandoned his religion as the result of evolutionist propaganda:
Such examples as the one quoted above, used to support the claim that God did not create life and that everything came to be by chance, were sheer bogus. Worms and insects did not arise by happenstance—out of nothing, as the medieval belief in spontaneous generation had it—but from eggs laid in the ground. But because the scientific world was not yet aware that living creatures could never be generated from lifeless matter, such myths as these arose like a flood, drowning the half-ignorant Russian youth in atheism.
Members of the atheist generation that grew up in Russia in the 19th century, emerged in the 20th century as passionate Communists. One of them was Stalin. In 1898 he joined a secret Communist organization and began to write for a Communist magazine, Brdzola (The Struggle), in 1901. By 1917, he was an active militant of the Communist movement led by Lenin. After the October Revolution of 1917, he became one of the five members of the Politburo, the highest degree of membership in the Communist Party. While Lenin lay ill in 1923, Stalin's power continued in the party to grow and upon Lenin's death, he became the supreme authority. In the five years between 1924 and 1929, he cleared the party of all his opponents by assassination, execution, or exile. Even Trotsky, one of the architects of the October Revolution, became the object of his rage and was driven out of the Soviet Union.
After consolidating his power, Stalin turned his iron fist on society. Lenin had tried to nationalize all the agricultural land in Russia, but the devastation caused by the great famine of 1920-1921 forced him to postpone this undertaking. Stalin, determined to put his plan into effect, began to apply a policy called "collectivization." Its aim was to nationalize all of the villagers' property, seize and export their crops, and use the revenue to bolster Soviet industry and strengthen the military.
Stalin carried out his collectivization policy by torture, murder and starvation. Six million people died of famine, while he exported hundreds of thousands of tons of grain. Once again, Stalin documented the savagery of Materialist-Darwinist ideas, which regarded humanity as an animal species that had to be trained by inflicting pain as corrective punishment.
The Savagery of Collectivization
This policy of Stalin's began in 1929. According to his plan, all private property was to be abolished. Every villager would have to give to the state a certain quota of his production and was prohibited from selling his own produce. The villagers' quotas were very high and to meet it, most had to surrender everything they had. The tyranny Lenin had begun in the 1920's resumed once more.
To implement collectivization, Stalin employed the cruelest methods. Those who resisted were killed, exiled to Siberia (essentially, murder over the long term) or left to starve (slow murder). Throughout the whole country, kulaks (rich landowners) who resisted collectivization—and, therefore, Communism in general—were hunted down. The Black Book of Communism describes this policy:
The kulaks who resisted collectivization were shot, and the others were deported with their wives, children and elderly family members. Although not all kulaks were exterminated directly, sentences of forced labor in wilderness areas of Siberia or the far north left them with scant chance of survival. Several tens of thousands perished there; the exact number of victims remains unknown. As for the great famine in Ukraine in 1932-33, which resulted from the rural population's resistance to forced collectivization, 6 million died in a period of several months.32
The savagery inflicted on the kulaks included the most horrendous tortures. In a letter to Stalin in April 1933, the writer Mikhail Sholokhov wrote:
In the Napolovski kolkhoz [a collective farm in the Soviet Union] a certain Plotkin, plenipotentiary for the district committee, forced the collective workers to stretch out on stoves heated till they were white hot; then he cooled them off by leaving them naked in a hangar. 33
Stalin's regime, like Lenin's before it, created imaginary enemies they called "kulaks." They targeted anyone they wanted to eliminate by stamping them with this name. It was easy for the Communists to categorize those they didn't like as "kulaks" and to send orders to every city, commanding that a certain number of these "kulaks" be rounded and executed. This is described in The Black Book of Communism:
In such conditions, it is not surprising that in certain districts between 80 and 90 percent of those victimized by the dekulakization process were serednyaki, or middle-income peasants. The brigades had to meet the required quotas and, if possible, surpass them. Peasants were arrested and deported for having sold grain on the market or for having had an employee to help with the harvest back in 1925 or 1926, for possessing two samovars, for having killed a pig in September 1929 "with the intention of consuming it themselves and thus keeping it from socialist appropriation." Peasants were arrested on the pretext that they had "taken part in commerce," when all they had done was sell something of their own making. One peasant was deported on the pretext that his uncle had been a tsarist officer; another was labeled a kulak on account of his "excessive visits to the church." But most often, people were classed as kulaks simply on the grounds that they had resisted collectivization. At times confusion reigned in the dekulakization brigades to an almost comic extreme: in one city in Ukraine, for example, a serednyak who was a member of a dekulakization brigade was himself arrested by a member of another brigade that was operating on the other side of the town. 34
At the top of the list of those branded as kulaks were the clergy. In 1930, more than 13,000 priests were "dekulakized." In many villages and towns, collectivization began symbolically with the closing of the church and the the removal of local religious leaders.35
Collectivization had two major results: famine and exile.
Famine Brought About by Stalin
Like Lenin before him, Stalin intended to wield collectivization as a weapon against society. By collecting as much grain as he wanted from any section of the country, he subjected any people in those areas to starvation. Because Ukraine resisted Communism, it became the target of collectivization. This region suffered the greatest man-made famine in history, with a total of four million dying of starvation.
How this occurred is significant. First, according to the state's general collectivization policy in 1931, a total of 7.7 million tons of grain was demanded from a Ukrainian harvest which collectivisation had brought down to 18 million tons. This brought the already overburdened villagers almost to the point of starvation and the villagers of Ukraine began to resist Stalin's troops—which made Stalin even more pitiless. In July of 1932, he issued a virtual death order against the whole of the Ukraine by increasing the previous quota demanding another 7.7 million tons of grain to be delivered to the State. Millions of people were condemned to die of starvation. This policy is described in Brian Moynahan's book, The Russian Century: A History of the Last Hundred Years:
These savage scenes affected the Russian author Michail Sholokhov, who wrote a letter to Stalin demanding an end to this cruelty. But Stalin had done all these things deliberately, of course:
Famine caused the death of six million—men, women, children, old people and infants—not because Soviet farms produced insufficient grain, but because the Communist party wanted this man-made famine to happen. In other words, it was mass murder. Stalin didn't want Western countries to learn of the famine because he feared that any aid campaign would only weaken the punishment he had determined for Ukraine. In the periodical magazine Soviet Studies, historian Dana Dalrymple comments:
As a result of collectivization, peasants of Ukraine suffered the greatest losses, with at least four million people dead. In Kazakhstan, one million starved as a result of collectivization. In Northern Caucasus and the Black Earth region, there were a million deaths. With one single order, Stalin had sent six million people to their deaths.39
Exiles and Work Camps
Stalin murdered millions of others who resisted Communism by sending them into "exile." The Soviet Union singled out many minorities, including Crimean Turks, forcing them from their homes at night and sending them to their deaths, thousands of kilometers away. Those who died on the way numbered in the hundreds of thousands.
In the notes below, written by an instructor of the Party committee in Narym in western Siberia, we see that exile in Russia meant "mass murder":
Stanford researcher Robert Conquest's book, The Harvest of Sorrow, has this to say about the exiles of Stalin's time:
Another method of mass murder used against exiles were the labor camps. Between the years 1928 and 1953 (when Stalin died), an estimated more than 30 million individuals whose ideas differed from those of the Soviet administration were arrested and sent to gulags, generally established in regions like Siberia where conditions were unlivable. More than two thirds of these—that is, at least 20 million—died in these camps. Inmates living on the edge of starvation were worked between 14 and 16 hours a day, and were executed by camp guards on the least excuse. Some inmates were deliberately starved to death; others died, their physical health broken from lack of nourishment and terrible living conditions. Many others were made to work in light and shredded clothing, froze to death in the Siberian cold. First a prisoner's fingers and toes would freeze and fall off, then his ear or nose would "break off." Hundreds of thousands are known to have suffered and died in this way. In The Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956, the famous Russian author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn gives further examples of this horror.
Red Terror in the Eastern Block
Stalin died in 1953. The terror begun by Lenin, which he had continued and extended, left tens of millions dead and subjected dozens of different ethnic groups to torture and anguish. The Black Book of Communism gives a broad outline of Communist savagery in the Leninist-Stalinist era:
After Stalin's death, the Soviet regime entered a softer period, limited though it was. But his "reign of fear" continued to govern a society founded on fear. In a later section, we'll examine more closely the fear that held sway in the Soviet Union and all other Communist societies, and how it was organized.
The Soviets did not limit terror to their own people. The outbreak of World War II let the Soviet Union spread throughout Eastern Europe. When the war ended, a number of countries had fallen under Soviet influence. Within a few years, by means of various political plots and maneuvers, Moscow took them all under its hegemony. Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and East Germany fell into the clutches of Stalin's bloody legacy.
The red savagery inflicted a hellish life on these countries. Those opposed to the regime were arrested one by one and subjected to torture and execution. In a short time, fear and horror pervaded the whole of society. Long after in the early 1990's, after the fall of Bulgaria's Communist regime, a woman filmed in a Bulgarian documentary describes what happened to her in the autumn of 1944:
Prisoners suffered terribly. The Black Book of Communism describes the torture inflicted by Nicolae Ceausescu's regime in Romania:
The purpose of this was to destroy the prisoners' religious faith; at the end of it they were expected to deny the existence of God:
People in every country of the Eastern Bloc were subjected to Communism's crazed murderous impulse and passionate hatred of religion. The Darwinist-Materialist philosophy that regards human beings as animals and maintains that constant violence, torture, and fear are needed to subdue these so-called "animals," brought about a terrible regime of torture in Communist prisons.
This is why those who regard Darwinism as no danger, or think its theories are harmless, must read this book carefully. The Darwinist-Communist ideology's final aim is to turn people against one another, to alienate them from every moral and spiritual value, thereby bestializing human society into a "herd" that can easily be domesticated and governed. No matter with what ideology they disguise themselves, their aim is all the same, as history has witnessed.
Darkness in Cuba
During the Cold War period, the Soviet Union supported the dictatorship of Fidel Castro's Cuba, another Communist regime. The guerilla movement led by Castro and supported by the Argentine guerilla leader Ernesto "Che" Guevara seized power in 1959. Castro protected his regime with political and military support from the Soviet Union, and even when the USSR collapsed, Castro was able to survive.
The Communist movement in Cuba, and in Latin America in general, had an aspect of romanticism. Che Guevara's guerilla movement in particular was portrayed as the "story of a hero." Many young people mounted posters of Che struggling for Communism and sang Latin American Communist songs. Apparently the Cuban revolution was a "freedom struggle" to save people from cruelty and torture under the Cuban dictator Batista.
That was hardly the truth, however. If we look behind the romantic legends of Che and Fidel, we see the dark face of Cuban dictatorship. The Black Book of Communism describes Communist Cuba's labor camps and prisons:
After the 1959 revolution, about ten thousand were executed. More than 30 thousand were imprisoned under the conditions described above. And, just as wherever else a Communist regime was established, it brought pain, torture and fear. Meanwhile, the Cuban people gradually grew impoverished, despite the massive aid from the Soviets.
Soviet Massacres in Afghanistan
To fully examine Marxist-Leninist Bolshevik ideology and its record of savagery, we must also look at the countries invaded by the Soviet Union. Afghanistan was one of those subjected to the greatest cruelty.
In 1978, Communist army generals and some Communist civilians organized a coup in Afghanistan, announced that henceforth, the country would be run by a Communist regime. They also initiated a ruthless war against religion. The Black Book of Communism describes this policy as follows:
Afghanistan Communists were paid by the Soviet Union, inflicting mass murder on their own people according to directives sent by "advisors" from Moscow. After a short time in power, they inflicted great terror. Afghanistan scholar Michael Barry describes one such incident:
At the same time, terror reigned in Kabul. On the eastern outskirts of the city, the Pol-e-Charki prison became a concentration camp. In The Black Book of Communism, the situation in the prison is described in this way:
All these efforts were directed from Moscow. Indeed, all Afghanistan's inner turmoil was first planned by the Soviets. They had incited the Afghani Communists to make the coup, which they then used as an excuse to invade the country in order to support the so-called "democratic" regime. Most political historians accept that the motive behind Moscow's plan was regarding Islam as a source of danger to the Communists.
Against the Afghani Muslims, the Red Army used the basest methods: They made mines look like toys in order to get Afghani children to play with them, subjected captive opponents to terrible tortures, and bombed civilians without hesitation. The end of their ten-year occupation left tens of thousands of maimed and dead. This is why many Afghani young people are without arms or legs, and why today, Afghanistan is the country that manufactures the most prosthetic limbs. But the Soviets' withdrawal left a power vacuum, and a bloody civil war ensued. In short, the savagery begun in the 1970's at Soviet instigation brought Afghanistan a half century of cruelty and pain.
As mentioned earlier, Communist Russia saw the gradual spread of Islam as a danger and inflicted cruelty to prevent this spread. It forbad Afghanis to worship, burned Qur'ans and murdered those who practiced their Islamic faith. But the invaders did not take into account one important point: Those with no faith at all cannot conceive of a believer's intimate relationship with God. They assume that by destroying holy books, they can make faith disappear too. But faith lies in the heart. Those who truly believe know that all the adversities they suffer are tests from God; therefore, they bear them patiently.
In the Qur'an (2: 155-157), God says to those who believe:
We will test you with a certain amount of fear and hunger and loss of wealth and life and fruits. But give good news to the steadfast: Those who, when disaster strikes them, say, "We belong to God and to Him we will return." Those are the people who will have blessings and mercy from their Lord; they are the ones who are guided. (Qur'an 2: 155-157)
As this verse states, the faithful are tested in many ways in this world, but in every difficulty they turn to God and ask His help. For this reason, no Muslim worries or feels hopeless in the face of the difficulties he encounters. On the contrary, he takes pleasure in the knowledge that God has revealed His promise in the Qur'an and that, in the hereafter, his joy will be overflowing.
The Philosophy behind Communist Savagery: The Bestialization of Human Beings
The 20th-century Communist lie, proposed by materialist philosophers like Marx and Engels, has been a death machine with an insatiable thirst for blood. Communism has committed terrible crimes, submitting human beings to social pressures, fear, exile, torture, labor camps, famine, and slaughter. But in order not to experience this same savagery again in the future, we must consider its true cause. Is it merely a question of the cruelty and personal ambition of dictators like Lenin and Stalin? Or of the implementation of a Darwinist-based Communist ideology?
As you'll see, the second alternative is the correct one. Savagery is the evident, natural result of the Communist idea that a human being is just another "species." As Marx never tired of pointing out, Communism is based on Darwin's theory of evolution, which describes human beings as advanced animals and which suggests that conflict and struggle among peoples, oppression, cruelty, use of force are natural and legitimate. If someone who accepts this philosophy has enough power and resources, he will find it easy to commit all kinds of cruelty. About this idea, The Black Book of Communism has this to say:
As Marx, Engels and Lenin emphasized many times, Communist savagery is nothing more than the implementation of Darwinism's view that humans are merely animals.
According to Stéphane Courtois, research director of The National Scientific Research Center (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-CNRS) in France and an expert in the history of Communism:
At the end of his comments, Courtois points out,
Certainly it can be related: Communism is definitely rooted in Darwinism—not a "deviant version of Darwinism," but authentic Darwinism. The source of the ideas that humans beings are a species of animal, that history progresses through a natural and inevitable conflict, that no one is responsible for his actions is Charles Darwin. Darwin simply proposed the theory; the Communists implemented it. The bloody account of 20th-century Communism, which presents all the nonsense of dialectical materialism in the guise of "science," is in reality applied Darwinism.
14. Vladimir I. Lenin, 30 Eylül 1906, Proletari, Nr. 5, firstname.lastname@example.org
15. N. Werth, "Le Pouvoir soviétique et l'Eglise ortnodoxe de la collectivisation à la Constitution de 1936", Revue d'études comparatives Est-Quest, 1993, no.3-4, s.41-49 (Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean-Louis Margolin, Komünizmin Kara Kitabi, Dogan Kitapçilik A.S., s. 22)
25. A.Belyakov, Yunost vozdya (Önderin Gençligi), Moskova, 1960, s.80-82, aktaran M.Heller, "Premier avertissement: un coup de fouet. L'histoire de l'expulsion des personnalites culturelles hors de l'Union sovietique en 1922", Cahiers du monde Russe et Sovietique, cilt XX, no.2, Nisan-Haziran 1979, s.134; Komünizmin Kara Kitabi sf. 165