OF THE SYSTEM
In most general terms, cancer can be characterised as uncontrolled cell
replication. Regardless of its type, cancer initially develops in a normal,
healthy cell and shares the basic characteristics of this normal cell,
at least in its early developmental stages. However, these cells tend
to lose some of their abilities. One such important ability is that of
reacting to the messages delivered by their surrounding or their own organisms
that regulate cell replication. When such a disorder occurs, the cell
can no longer control its replication and the growth of tissues. This
process, known as "continuous dividing," is genetically transferred to
new cells resulting in the spread of tumours, which in turn invade the
neighbouring tissues. These decomposed cells eat up the nutrients of other
cells, consuming the vital amino acid supply. Cancer cells eventually
shut down the passages within the human body with their expanding volume.
They accumulate in various organs such as the brain, lungs, liver, and
kidneys, surrounding the healthy and normal cells of these organs and
preventing their normal functioning, eventually posing a serious threat
to human life.
Normal cells replicate only when they receive a command from neighbouring
cells. This is a safety measure within the organism. However, cancer cells
do not respond to this mechanism and refuse any control over their replication
system. The type of cancer described so far does not create any problem
for the defence system. A strong body with an effective defence system
is capable of struggling with the increasingly expanding cancerous cells
multiplying in number, and of even defeating the disease. The main problem
arises when cancer cells pierce their own membranes with the help of an
enzyme (pac-man enzyme), and mix in the circulatory system (the conveyor
network) of the body by penetrating the lymphatic fluid, and eventually
reaching distant tissues and cells.
The current scenario is quite negative. Cells that used to work collectively
in providing humans with the gifts of seeing, hearing, breathing, and
living suddenly grow recalcitrant, not obeying the "stop" command they
receive from neighbouring cells. As they continue replicating, they carry
out a destruction process at full blast which leads to the total death
of the body.
If we compare the human body to a country and the human defence system
to a powerful, fully equipped army, the cancer cells emerge as the rebels
of this country. This mutinous community grows in number daily, continuing
their demolition of the current structure. But the army of this country
is not at all pregnable.
A war between the cancer cell (pink) and lymphocytes
The macrophages, the front line warriors of the defence system, surround
the invader when they encounter it and destroy the cancer cells with the
help of a protein they specially produce. In addition, the T cells, the
strong and intelligent warriors of the defence system and their exceptional
weapons (antibodies) kill the cancer cells that have begun to fuse in
the body and lymphatic fluids by piercing the cell membrane. The struggle
will continue even as the cancer spreads. As the cancer cells develop
further, the defence cells help to inhibit the progress of the disease,
resulting in remission.
One of the systems within human cells which prevent the spread of cancer
cells is "apoptosis", which causes the suicide of the cell. Apoptosis
is seen when the DNA of the cell is damaged, or a tumour develops, or
the effectiveness of the P53 gene - also known as the "cancer preventing
gene" - lessens. Though apoptosis may appear to be a very negative event,
it is actually highly important, as it blocks such vital disorders and
prevents the disease from passing on to the next generation. When compared
to the potential danger imposed by the cancer cells, which are likely
to damage the entire human body, the loss of a single cell is much more
acceptable. Cells within the human body that realise (!) that there is
a disorder in their own structure threatening the human body instigate
their own demise to prolong human life.
The cancer takes on a life-threatening form when these decomposed cells
overcome this suicide system. In this case, a second defence mechanism
is activated to avoid uncontrolled multiplying of these cells. If they
succeed in surpassing this barrier, too, they then encounter a further
stage known as the "the term of crisis". At this stage, the cells, which
have successfully escaped from the previous security systems, are killed
en masse. Among these cells, one cell, however, succeeds in overcoming
the "crisis". This "rebellious" cancer cell will transfer its rebellious
nature to its descendants, which will multiply in great numbers. The cancerous
patient must now fight an intensive struggle with cancer.
When required, the cell commits suicide in
a disciplined manner.
Is it only the uncontrolled, independent and continuously multiplying
nature of the cancer cell that brings victory to it? Other reasons lie
behind this success.
Cells carry a type of inscription system on their surface which positions
them in the body. This inscription system is decipherable by all the cells
within the human body, helping each cell to know exactly where it belongs
and preventing it from occupying another's place. This system ensures
the integrity of the tissues. Cells, which are aware of their position,
neither go anywhere else, nor let any other cell occupy their place, thus
ensuring the maintenance of the body in a healthy state. Cells that are
not located at a certain site or those located at an inappropriate site
will eventually commit suicide. However, with the help of this system,
the suicide process is totally eliminated, as the cells are not allowed
to be dislocated or located in an inappropriate site. This process is
not as simple as it may seem. In order to maintain the effective functioning
of this system, each cell has to identify its own position whilst respecting
the locations of other cells, and being mindful not to invade their sites.
These procedures are taught to them by various mediator molecules which
enable these cells to maintain their respective places. However, there
are occasions when these mediator molecules are absent or unable to fulfil
this duty. This provides the cancer cells with an advantage. When inhibitory
molecules are not present in the environment, cancer cells spread more
rapidly. Besides, cancer cells are not required to anchor themselves to
any specific site. They undermine the rules by living independently and
without settling in any place.
Erythrocytes are exceptional cells that do not possess a stationary site
within the human body. They pierce the membranes of other cells and tissues
and tear down the obstacles with the aid of a special enzyme called "metallo-proteinase".
They are therefore able to visit any part of the human body at will. The
defence cells use this enzyme to reach out to the enemy cells, while cancer
cells use them for an entirely different purpose. Their main goal is to
attack healthy cells and invade them.
1. A cell committing suicide, 2. Healthy cell,
3. Damaged cell, 4. Cancerous cell. The process by which healthy
cells transform into cancer cells. A normal cell as seen at the
left either commits suicide or transforms into a cancer cell as
it undergoes various genetic mutations.
The skills of the cancer cells are not limited to these pursuits; they
are also capable of playing other 'games' against the defence cells. Odd
as it may sound, we are not talking about talented actors but rather cancer
cells, which play games against their opponents. Before attempting to
explain these unbelievably clever games, let us review what we have explained
Isn't it extraordinary that our army of defence sets up progressive barriers
against the enemy? This organization we call an "army" is made up of cells
which can only be viewed under an advanced electron microscope. Their
ability to protect and guard their sites, their willingness to lay down
their own lives to save the life of the human body they belong to, their
unyielding commitment to continue their struggle, are not the products
of coincidence. Undoubtedly, we can see a very conscious and well-organised
form of functioning in defence cells.
What would happen if such a difficult mission were handed to a trillion
highly educated humans beings? Would the success rate be as impressive?
Would it be possible for them to enforce their will on the crowd despite
the existence of strict disciplinary rules and obligatory measures? If
a few of these individuals forgot the formula of the antibodies they were
supposed to manufacture, or neglected to manufacture them, or refused
to commit suicide when necessary, would all of these stages function regularly?
Would the struggle end with victory? Could an army of billions of individuals
continue its struggle without any mistake? Are there, by any chance, any
brave and skilled commanders or managers who would be willing to undertake
the responsibility of keeping these billions under control? However, our
defence cells do not need any commanders or managers. Their system operates
in a very regulated manner, without any inhibitions or difficulties. There
is no anarchy or confusion during the process. The reason for this perfection
and extremely effective functioning is Allah, Who established this system
down to its minute details and inspired the elements of this system to
fulfill their responsibilities. In the 5th verse of Surat al-Sajda, it
is stated: "He directs the whole affair from heaven to earth". In accordance
with this rule, the defence cells continue their struggle without rest
or duress with this inspiration Allah has given to them.
Games Of Cancer Cells
It must not be forgotten that cancer cells are original body cells that
carry the molecular character of the human being. In consequence, it is
difficult for the defence cells to identify cancer cells. Furthermore,
cancer cells manage to win over some antibodies by a method undiscovered
As we have mentioned, antibodies are a type of protein that stops the
activities of enemy cells. However, for some unknown reason, cancer cells
are adversely affected by the antibodies. Instead of stopping, their activities
increase, resulting in the rapid and forceful spreading of the tumour.
Antibodies, which bind themselves on to the surface of the cancer cell,
"collaborate" with the cancer cell in a sense. Other antibodies do not
touch a cancer cell having an antibody attached to it. Hence, the cancer
cell is perfectly camouflaged.
Collaboration between antibodies and cancer cells can reach even broader
dimensions. There are also occasions where cancer cells combine with antibodies
to form "pseudo supressor T cells". These pseudo suppressor T cells misinform
antibodies by relaying the message that there is "no danger". More sinister
situations also develop whereby the cancer cells develop into "Pseudo
Helper T cells" instead of the pseudo suppressor T cells. In such situations,
the message is delivered to a bigger number of antibodies. There can be
no more convenient environment possible for the development of cancer
Additionally, cancer cells may sometimes spread "trap antigens" in order
to protect themselves from a possible attack by the defence system. These
tumours spread out such large amounts of antigens from their surface that
the blood stream is inundated with them. These antigens, however, are
fake and cause no harm to the human body. However, the antibodies are
not aware of this and they respond without delay by instigating a war
During this chaos, the real and dangerous cancer cells continue to function,
going undisturbed and undiscovered by the enemy.
An Intelligent Enemy: AIDS
In the previous chapters we discussed viruses and explained the importance
of their role in the life of humans. Among these viruses, the most dangerous
and harmful is the "HIV virus", which has preoccupied researchers for
a long time and may well continue to do so for some time to come. Unlike
other viruses, this micro organism totally inactivates the defence system.
It is impossible for a human being with a malfunctioning defence system
The HIV virus causes irreversible damages to the human body by causing
the defence system to collapse, making it vulnerable to all kinds of diseases,
eventually giving rise to various fatal conditions. It has occupied researchers
for many years, resulting in a sense of desperation and hopelessness.
The Journal of Bilim ve Teknik (Science and Technology), published in
August 1993, made the following statement:
(Left) Killer T cells attacking a cancerous
cell, (Right) Cancer cells do not act alone. There are many cells
that communicate and collaborate with them. (At bottom right a breast
cancer cell and at the top a dermal cancer cell)
"The more we learn, the less certain we become." This
statement is the most common answer to a public survey carried out among
150 of the most recognised researchers worldwide, studying AIDS. This
was published in the weekly scientific journal Science. No one can make
certain judgments based on the theses that have been advocated for years.
Views, which were considered absolutely correct are now being pushed aside
after they have been revealed to rely on shaky grounds. Inevitably, the
end result is such that even long established theories about AIDS and
its effective cause, the HIV virus are once again being reviewed and their
validity being questioned. 11
With the passage of time, the issues have intensified rather than become
resolved. To date there remains numerous unanswered questions, and the
advent of new inventions has served only increase the number of these
unanswered questions. AIDS still remains a mystery for mankind.
In the picture above you can see a healthy
lymph node. The picture below shows a lymph node damaged by the
One of the most important facts known about the HIV virus is that it
enters only some and not all the cells of human beings. Its main target
is the helper T cells, which are the most effective elements of the defence
system. This is a very important point. Among numerous types of cells,
the virus chooses those cells of the defence system which are, in effect,
the most beneficial for it and this instigates the destruction of the
An AIDS virus (orange) attempting to enter
a T cell by piercing the cell membrane.
When T cells, the vital elements of the defence system, are seized, the
defence system is deprived of its brain team, and is no longer able to
recognise the enemy. This could be regarded as an ingenious war tactic.
An army without any effective communication and intelligence systems would
be considered to have lost its main strength.
Furthermore, the antibodies produced by the human body do not harm the
AIDS virus. AIDS patients continue to produce antibodies, however, they
are not as effective in the absence of the killer T cells.
Before moving on to the other cell type to
be infected, small pieces of the HIV virus (blue) multiply in the
defence cells. Although the defence cells are able to deal with
the HIV virus initially, the HIV virus eventually takes over. The
reason for this phenomenon remains unclear.
One unanswered questions is: How does the HIV virus know exactly what
target to focus on? By the time the AIDS virus understands that the T
cells are regarded as the "brains" of the defence system, it will be destroyed
by the existing system immediately upon entering the human body. However,
it is impossible for the AIDS virus to conduct any form of intelligence
surveillance prior to entering the human body. How then has the AIDS virus
developed this strategy?
This is only the first of many amazing skills mastered by the AIDS virus.
At the second stage, the virus has to attach itself to the cells which
it has set as a target for itself. This procedure is not at all difficult
for the AIDS virus. In fact, it attaches to these cells as a key fits
into its lock.
At the third stage, the HIV virus undergoes a series of miraculous processes,
which will ensure its longevity.
The HIV virus is a retrovirus. This means that its genetic make-up contains
solely RNA and no DNA. But a retrovirus needs DNA to remain alive. To
provide this, it has recourse to a very interesting method: it uses the
nucleic acids of its host cell and converts its RNA into DNA by means
of an enzyme called "the reverse transcriptase", meaning it will reverse
the process. Then it places this DNA in the DNA found in the nucleus of
its host cell. The inheritance material of the virus has now become the
inheritance material of the T cell. As the cell multiplies, so does the
HIV virus. The cell starts to work as a factory for the virus. But invading
a single cell does not satisfy the HIV virus. It will eventually attempt
to seize the whole body.
Then the fourth stage comes. The initial HIV virus and others want to
leave their host cells and invade other cells to facilitate their extraordinary
proliferation. They do not expend much effort in doing so. Everything
takes place at a natural pace. The membrane of the invaded T cells cannot
tolerate the pressure of the multiplication process, and is riddled with
holes, allowing the HIV viruses to get out of the cell to seek alternative
hosts. As the HIV virus increases in number, it also kills its host T
The successful HIV virus has now completely seized the human body. Unless
mankind succeeds in discovering an effective cure to beat this virus,
it will remain there. It is entirely at the discretion of the HIV virus
either to lie dormant for many years, or instigate an immediate attack
on the human body.
A healthy T cell (left)
A T cell that has been destroyed by the enemy (the AIDS virus)
and now possesses a round and softened profile. (right)
These images are magnified more than 3,000 times.
Why Has A Solution Not Yet Been Found?
After entering the human body, the HIV virus can produce up to ten billion
viruses a day. The excessive number of viruses produced in one day is
unmanageable, despite the technological advancements of the day. The HIV
virus cannot be considered as a simple structure. What we have here is
a micro-organism, so advanced and intelligent that it can duplicate millions
of its own copies, possesses a plan to capture its host cell, and is able
to cause the death of a huge human body.
In addition to the abilities of the HIV virus mentioned above, the HIV
virus is also able to assume varying forms in an attempt to prevent its
capture by the defence system. This makes the HIV virus immune to the
effects of medications aimed at treating it today. Modern medicine has
attacked the virus with a variety of medications at the same time and
barely succeeded in dealing with the resistance of the virus. Although
the virus is partially eradicated, the only positive outcome has been
the prolonging of the patients' lives to a limited extent.
It is of great interest how a virus like the HIV virus can regenerate
itself when faced with the danger of being eradicated. Scientists are
left helpless in the presence of such skillful tactics.
These are not the only mind-boggling tactics used by the HIV virus. helper
T cells circulating in the bloodstream swim along, interlocking with one
another like the metallic projections of a zipper. The HIV leaps from
one T cell to another to avoid contact with the antibodies in the blood
stream. All this is done by a virus, which is only one micron in size,
possesses no DNA and cannot even be qualified as a living creature. The
extraordinary ability of the HIV virus to recognise the human body so
well, develop advanced systems to overcome the human body, implement the
necessary strategies without any errors and constantly modify itself to
be protected from all kinds of weapons used by the body are all truly
amazing. This is a very good example of how helpless mankind is rendered
in the presence of a minute virus, which cannot be seen with the naked
1. Bleb, 2. Condensed Chromatin, 3. Normal Cell,
4. Cell Beginning Apoptosis, 5. Chromatin, 6. Nuclear Fragments,
7. Neighbouring Cell, 8. Cell Fragments. Although they are not infected,
the T cells of AIDS patients die by passing through all the stages
of apoptosis. Mounting an immune response against an intruder virus,
helper T cells multiply. These T cells die in a few days after they
have fulfilled their function. However, many healthy T cells of
AIDS patients commit suicide before attempting to struggle with
the infection. First the cell shrinks and pulls away from its neighbours
(top right). Then blebs appear on the surface (making the cell appear
to boil), and the chromatin (nuclear DNAcomplexed with proteins)
condenses at the edges of the nucleus. Soon the nucleus, and then
the cell itself, breaks up, and the cell fragments are quickly ingested
by other cells in the vicinity.