A hypothesis is a temporary solution or explanation proposed for a problem raised by various facts or phenomena. In order for a good hypothesis to be confirmed, it needs to be open to experiment and observation, besides conforming to the available facts. At the same time, it must be open to new facts and estimates, and partial changes must be made if required.217
Scientists first generalize from the observations they carry out or describe a possible cause-and-effect relationship between a chain of events in order to give a temporary explanation for those observations. The first step towards research is taken by means of a hypothesis. Assumptions made in forming that hypothesis must be capable of being tested through controlled experiments. If a hypothesis cannot be based on experimental testing that may confirm it, it remains mere speculation.218
A theory is constructed with a hypothesis, supported by a great many observations and experiments (See Theory.) and includes hypothesis and observation in various different disciplines. For example, the theory of evolution includes hypotheses and observations from paleontology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, genetics and other sciences. When a scientist makes an observation that is not compatible with the hypothesis, he must conclude that either the hypothesis or his experiment is flawed. If the observation is correct, he rejects the hypothesis, or else refashions it.
When it comes to the theory of evolution, however, it appears not to be supported by any hypothesis in any branch of science. Nonetheless, this is wholly ignored for the sake of keeping the theory viable. (See, Evolution theory, the.)217 Musa Özet, Osman Arpacı, Ali Uslu, Biyoloji 1 (“Biology 1”) Istanbul: Sürat Publishing, 1998, p. 7.