One of the first things a human being learns to do is to walk…
Walking is always a very simple matter for us. Before walking, we have never asked ourselves such questions as, “What angle should I place my feet at?” “Will I lose my balance if I step this way?” or “Will I fall over if I lift my feet up high?” However, the “walking movement” we perform so easily, in fact, takes place as the result of a highly complex system.
Thousands of books have been written on the subject, and years of research revealing the miraculous structure in the locomotive and balance system have been performed. The conclusion to which all these studies lead us is always the same. The human body’s ability to walk and move has been created right down to the finest detail. The systems created, in order to permit locomotion in all living things, not just in man, demonstrate the infinite might inherent in Allah’s creative artistry. Almighty Allah says in one verse:
“Allah created every animal from water. Some of them go on their bellies, some of them on two legs, and some on four. Allah creates whatever He wills. Allah has power over all things.” (Surat An-Nur, 45)
THE COMPLEX STRUCTURE OF WALKING
A clock contains a great many components…
All of these components function in a perfect harmony with one another.
The clock would not work if just one of these components were missing or used wrongly.
The human body is just like that clock.
Every system and every organ, right down to the tiniest detail, functions in such a way as to complement all the others.
A healthy, newborn baby comes into the world, together with the systems that will flawlessly meet all its needs and enable it to live. Each one of these systems possesses the most complex structures.
The human locomotion and movement system is one of the miracles within this complex structure.
A large number of systems and organs, from the structure of the bones and skeletal system to the backbone, from the feet to the joints and muscles, are all involved in the taking of a single step.
We may not be surprised when we see people skiing, skating, or surfing, playing football, or bouncing a ball with their feet. But, the fact is that even standing upright, on balance, let alone making such complex movements as those, takes place as the result of a series of processes all requiring the very finest calculations. You will shortly be looking at the details of the system that operates inside our bodies in order for these movements to be carried out. This is a system you have had since the day you were born; it operates, non-stop, within the body without you ever being aware of it…
THE BONES AND THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
You stand up from the chair you have been sitting in, or sit down, or jump over an object to avoid treading on it. The skeletal system that functions, in a highly complex manner, goes into action during the course of all such motions that you perform as a reflex without consciously thinking about them. Were it not for your bones and skeletons, you could never get up and do things such as running or walking.
The skeleton, the framework of the human body, consists of 206 hard components.
It is by way of these interconnected parts that the human body has such an extraordinary ability for movement. There is a sublime structure in the bones that comprise the skeleton. The bones, which serve such important functions as carrying and protecting the body, possess the necessary capacity and strength to do these things without difficulty.
The thigh bone, for instance, has the capacity to bear 1 ton in weight when in a vertical position.
In addition, the bones make up some 20% of the total weight of the human body.
In other words, a 16-kilogram bone bears the weight of an 80-kilogram human being. In fact, with every step we take, a load three times greater than the weight of our bodies is placed on this bone. And, when a high jumper lands on his feet every square centimetre of the thigh-bone is exposed to a pressure of 1400 kilograms. Yet, the bone does its job to perfection despite this extraordinary pressure; and, the athlete has no problem in getting up again. But what is it that makes our bones so strong?
BONES STRONGER THAN STEEL
The internal structure, its strength and lightness, is an amazing “engineering marvel.”
So much so that, these exquisite structure in the bones is an important source of inspiration for engineers.
Through construction techniques, developed in such a way as to resemble the bone structure, much stronger buildings are now being erected at a much lower cost.
One of the strongest and most practical materials used by human beings is steel because steel is both strong and flexible. Let us now compare steel to the structure of the bones in our bodies.
First and foremost, the bones are many times stronger than steel. They are also 10 times more elastic than steel. Bones are also superior to steel in terms of lightness. In comparative terms, the human skeleton is three times lighter than steel. These properties of lightness and strength in the structure of bones are of vital importance; if the bones possessed only one of these features, if they were strong but heavy, for instance, then the human skeleton would be too heavy to bear. Human beings’ locomotive capacity would decrease because of this weight, and day-to-day activities would be enormously restricted. We would have to expend enormous force and energy in order to take even a single step. In addition, these solid bones would be a lot harder and more brittle. They would fracture or break the first time we took a step or leapt into the air.
Were the opposite to apply, in other words if the bones were light, but hard, then something dramatically different would occur…
In that event, the body would not have the form it actually does, but would resemble a flaccid mass of skin.
Many vitally important organs, such as the brain and heart, would be in danger at every moment.
Yet, none of these things happen because bones have just the right strength and lightness.
The bones in the human body possess different features according to their locations.
All bones are elastic and resistant, although the different levels of these may vary. For example, the rib cage contains bones strong and flexible enough to protect such vital organs as the heart and lungs. The skull has hard bones to protect the brain…
This perfect structure, in our bones, enables us to lead comfortable lives, to move easily without any pain.
This is a manifestation of Allah’s matchless creative artistry.
Does not man recall that We created him before when he was not anything? (Surah Maryam, 67)
A STONE BLOCK THAT REPAIRS ITSELF
Bones have a structure as hard as that of stone. Yet, they nonetheless break from time to time.
At this point, a great miracle takes place; the bone in the break site soon repairs itself!
Let us imagine that our bones were weaker and would even break at the slightest strain.
Let us also imagine that the bones had no ability to “self-repair.” There is no doubt that this would represent a most painful and difficult state of affairs.
People would be crippled because their bones were unable to weld back together, and would even die as a result of constant breakages in vital regions. However, human beings have actually been created with a great blessing that they may be unaware of or have never thought about.
First and foremost, bones do not break easily, except in the case of serious accidents. In addition, bones that do break, for any reason, soon mend. The way that a bone immediately begins to repair itself, after being broken, and becomes even stronger, after the repair process than it had been before, is a truly extraordinary phenomenon.
The bones, in the human body, each one of which performs different functions, show us the sublimity of Allah’s creative artistry:
It is He Who originated Creation and then regenerates it. That is very easy for Him. His is the most exalted designation in the heavens and the earth. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise. (Surat Ar-Rum, 27)
THE SPINE: THE MOBILE MAIN PROP OF THE HUMAN BODY
Another structure that permits people to walk and move with ease is the spinal column. All of the weight of the upper body falls on this backbone. This consists of a sequence of 33 small, round bones known as “vertebrae.” Because the 33 bones that comprise the spine move under a heavy weight every time we take a step, the inevitable result is friction. So, how is the structure consisting of these overlapped 33 bones protected from the effects of crushing and friction?
A very special protective system is evident here. Disks made of cartilage have been placed between each one of the bones that make up the spinal cord. These discs work like shock absorbers in car wheels. Shock absorbers are designed by engineers as the result of years of accumulated technological experience. But, this problem has been resolved in a flawless manner in our own bodies, and without our even being aware of it…
The shape of the backbone has been created in such a way as to assist with weight bearing. This special “S” shape ensures that weight is distributed equally. With every step you take, a counter-force heads back to your body because of its weight.
By way of the curved, “force distributing” shape of the backbone, this force inflicts no harm on the body. Were it not for this special, elastic, and curved structure that reduces this reaction, the force emerging would be transmitted directly to the skull, and the top part of the spine would shatter the skull bones and penetrate the brain. Yet, with the perfect structure created by Allah in the human body, we continue to live healthy lives without ever encountering such a thing.
There are important signs and warnings in this sublime Creation for people:
And in your Creation and all the creatures He has spread about there are Signs for people with certainty. (Surat Al-Jathiyya, 4)
THE PERFECT LUBRICATION SYSTEM IN THE JOINTS
Imagine a basketball match. A player picks up the ball, runs fast, goes past his opponent with a few leg movements, jumps up, and throws the ball he is carrying…
Together, with all the other systems, the joints play a very important role in the performance of all these movements. Every movement our bodies make takes place as a result of the movement of the joints on one another. The job of the joints is to reduce friction by keeping the bones as far apart from one another as possible. Only in this way can the knees, elbows, wrists, and ankles be moved. If the joint lacked their own particular structure and did not act as buffers, then human beings would move with difficulty, in jerks like those of robots. Friction can inevitably be seen at the points of contact between the components of any mechanical device. This soon gives rise to wear and tear, as a result of which the components start becoming defective. In order to prevent this, all the components need to be regularly oiled. Yet, the joints of human beings and animals work throughout a whole lifetime with no need for any maintenance or lubrication. How is this possible?
The surfaces of the joints are covered in a thin, porous layer of cartilage, under which there is a slippery fluid. If the bone puts pressure on one part of the joint, the fluid spurts out through these pores and enables the surface of the joint to slide with ease.
Throughout the course of our lives, we never encounter any problems with the lubrication between the layers of cartilage in our joints. We are even able to move easily in complete lack of awareness that our joints even have such an automatic oiling system.
All these things clearly show that the human body is the work of a superior Creation, that of Almighty Allah, Lord of the heavens and the earth.
All praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of the heavens and the Lord of the earth, Lord of all the worlds. All greatness belongs to Him in the heavens and earth He is the Almighty, the All-Wise. (Surat Al-Jathiyya, 36-37)
THE FEET THAT SUPPORT THE BONES
The feet assume one of the most important responsibilities during walking.
The foot has a very special structure, created in order to facilitate mechanical functions.
The concave nature of the sole of the foot supports the bones against the weight of the body.
Flat feet, which lack this feature, therefore have greater trouble walking.
As we walk, the heel first makes contact with the ground, towards the end of which contact we rise onto our toes. The toes and the big toe in particular, play a major role in our being able to do this. We stand on our feet all day long, but despite this pressure, the delicate tissues, nerves, and blood vessels beneath our feet are never damaged. That is because the sole of the foot has a special, cushioning structure that eliminates the harmful effects of the weight of the body and enables pressure to be distributed equally.
In order to more fully understand the importance of this state of affairs, let us imagine that the weight applied to your feet were also applied to your hands. Let us imagine that you put your hands on a table and a weight of 70-80 kilograms was placed on them. The tissues would soon be crushed, the blood vessels would burst, and the bones would tear the flesh apart.
Yet, the blood vessels never burst, and the tissues are never crushed in the feet that bear the weight of a person’s body the whole day long.
That is because the foot is an organ specially created for weightbearing. Such examples of Allah’s sublime creative artistry are means whereby we can turn to Him and comprehend His might and greatness.
It is Allah Who made the earth a stable home for you and the sky a dome and formed you, giving you the best of forms, and provided you with good and wholesome things. That is Allah, your Lord. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of all the worlds. (Surah Ghafir, 64)
THE COOPERATION BETWEEN THE MUSCLES AND BONES
A person needs a muscular system, as well as a skeletal system, in order to be able to move because all of the bones that constitute the skeleton are attached to the muscles. As a muscle contracts, it brings the bones together and permits them to move. Thus, the muscles and the bones allow us to make a great many movements by working together. They act together during every movement we make. What emerges here is an example of complete co-ordination; the muscular system that allows us to move recognizes the structures and functions of the bones, and the bones are well acquainted with our muscles, as if they understand each other’s language.
For example, when we wish to sit down, the leg muscles contract as the knee joint bends. We thus sit and stand with no difficulty.
So appropriately does the muscle surround the bone that all the necessary preconditions for the muscle to be able to contract are met beforehand. The muscle never slides off the bone, and the bone never severs the muscle.
Two tissues completely different to one another, two separate complex systems, act in complete co-operation with one another.
All these show that every tissue and every cell in the human body is shaped and directed by a superior power. It is Allah Who creates our bones, causes them to work by surrounding them with muscle, and Who thus permits us to walk.
We created man from the purest kind of clay; then made him a drop in a secure receptacle; then formed the drop into a clot and formed the clot into a lump and formed the lump into bones and clothed the bones in flesh; and then brought him into being as another creature. Blessed be Allah, the Best of Creators! (Surat Al-Muminun, 12-14)
THE SENSITIVE BALANCE MECHANISM AND CO-ORDINATION IN THE BODY
Balance is one of the main preconditions for being able to walk, and even move at all.
No matter how perfect our muscular and skeletal systems are, we could never stand up in the absence of a balanced system.
The balanced system that constantly controls our bodies also makes adjustments as delicate as those required by a tightrope walker. One important component of the balanced system is in the inner ear. The centre of balance in the ear is known as the “labyrinth.” This consists of three small, hemispherical bones. These bones are hollow, like a tube. There is also a special fluid inside each one of these hemispherical bones in the labyrinth, and micro villus on the surfaces of those areas where this fluid runs. Whenever we make any movement, the fluid in these bones starts moving and causes the micro-hairs to vibrate. This alters the ion balance in the cells and produces an electrical signal. These electrical signals are transmitted by way of the nerves to the organ known as the “cerebellum” at the rear of the brain. The cerebellum constantly analyzes the data reaching it from the inner ear. However, other data are also needed if balance is to be established. For that reason, the cerebellum also receives a constant flow of information from the eyes and the muscles all over the body.
For example, in order for the body to remain upright, the information from billions of sensors in the legs, the feet, the back, the stomach, the chest, and all along the body is analyzed; and these commands are transmitted to the muscles every second. The brain analyzes all of this information at an incredible speed and performs a miraculous process…
It calculates the body’s position in relation to the force of gravity! Afterwards, and on the basis of that calculation, it determines how the muscles need to behave. A human being’s balance bears no resemblance to that of a table or chair being balanced because the human body is in a constant state of motion in different directions. For this reason, the body’s centre of gravity is constantly worked out and instructions are issued to the muscles accordingly. Let us now have a brief high-speed review of what we have just seen. All of these extraordinary processes take place in as little as one hundredth of a second. A person will be totally unaware of the processes taking place at such a dazzling speed within his or her own body. He can walk, run, and perform sports under the most difficult conditions unaware of this miracle. This sublime system in the balance system is one of the proofs of the existence and infinite might of Allah, Who flawlessly created it.
Mankind! if you are in any doubt about the Rising, know that We created you from dust then from a drop of sperm then from a clot of blood then from a lump of flesh, formed yet unformed, so We may make things clear to you. We make whatever We want stay in the womb until a specified time and then We bring you out as children so that you can reach your full maturity. Some of you die and some of you revert to the lowest form of life so that, after having knowledge, they then know nothing at all... (Surat Al-Hajj, 5)
HUMAN WALKING: A STRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN UNABLE TO ACHIEVE
Scientists today are engaged in intensive research in order to be able to produce robots capable of imitating human walking. Well-known companies are investing millions of dollars in the field. But no technological robot can achieve the perfection in human walking. You are now looking at the robot, Asimo, on the screen. The manufacturing firm, Honda, received wide praise from scientific circles when it first introduced Asimo because Asimo did a lot of things that no robots up until then had been able to do. It was able to stand and walk on two legs. But what had Honda put into this project? Research into the manufacture of Asimo had got under way in 1986. Around $100 million was spent on the project, with tens of hundreds of scientists working day and night.
Yet, despite all of this, the things the robot was capable of doing were very limited. It could welcome visitors and take them where they wanted to go. It could use its hands to perform simple tasks. Special programming or remote control commands were required in order for it to do anything else.
The process of walking, which human beings are able to perform with no special training, no calculation, and even with their eyes closed, requires years of research and highly complex programmes in robots. The most eminent names in scientific fields such as computer technology, mechanics, electronics, mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology have to work together in order to imitate one single feature of the system. This proves that the process of walking, something that human beings do automatically, is actually a very difficult one requiring the most delicate calculations. Allah is He Who creates using no previous precedent.
We created you so why do you not confirm the truth? Have you thought about the sperm that you ejaculate? Is it you who create it or are We the Creator? We have decreed death for you and We will not be forestalled. (Surat Al-Waqi‘a, 57-60)
THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION’S BIPEDALISM DILEMMA
Human beings have a perfect and flawless skeletal system, by reason of which, as we have seen throughout the course of this film, they are able to walk and run with ease and to perform such movements as they choose. So what kind of explanation for this do evolutionists have to offer?
Evolutionists claim that bipedalism, walking on two legs, evolved from the ape gait based on four legs. This claim is an impossible one in a great many respects. First and foremost, there is a huge anatomical gulf separating apes and human beings. The way that human beings and apes walk is completely different. Human beings stand upright, on two legs.
This is a unique form of locomotion not found in any other life form. Some other animals are capable of some restricted movement on two legs.
According to the theory of evolution, human beings’ ability to walk on two legs evolved from the way that apes walk on four. However, research has shown that the evolution of bipedalism is a fantasy that never happened, and could never have done so.
First and foremost, bipedalism is not an advantage.
This is because the ape-like gait is actually easier, faster, and more efficient than its human counterpart.
Human beings are unable to move through the trees by leaping from branch to branch like chimpanzees, nor to run at speeds of 125 kilometres like the cheetah. On the contrary, because human beings walk on two legs, they move very slowly across the ground. Therefore, according to the theory of evolution’s own logic, there is no point in apes beginning to move on two legs. Another dilemma facing the theory of evolution is that bipedalism is absolutely incompatible with the Darwinian model of “gradual development.” This model, which represents the basis of evolution, makes a “combined gait” between bipedalism and quadrupedalism unavoidable at some stage during evolution.
However, computer-assisted research by the British palaeoanthropologist, Robin Crompton, in 1996, showed that such a “combined” gait was totally impossible:
“A living being can either walk upright, or on all fours.” (Ruth Henke, “Aufrecht aus den Baumen, Focus, vol. 39, 1996, p. 178)
A gait between the two is impossible because of excessive energy consumption. There is therefore no possibility of such a semi-bipedal life form existing.
The evolutionist and palaeoanthropologist, Elaine Morgan, admits that there are four major secrets regarding evolution that they have been unable to unravel:
"These are the 4 most important secrets about human evolution:
1. Why do human beings walk on two legs?
2. Why have they lost most of their body hair?
3. Why did they develop such large brains? And,
4. Why did they learn how to run?
Four of the most outstanding mysteries about humans are:
1) We do not yet know
2) We do not yet know
3) We do not yet know
4) We do not yet know
The list of questions could be considerably lengthened without affecting the monotony of the answers. (Elaine Morgan, The Scars of Evolution, New York, Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 5)
This system has been in existence and has functioned flawlessly ever since human beings first appeared.
The muscles and skeleton of the first human being possessed this knowledge and, by Allah’s leave, that same information will be present in the bodies of every person who comes into the world. Allah has created man as a whole entity, together with all his component parts.
REFLECTING ON OUR OWN CREATION
Our bodies work non-stop, 24 hours a day for us. Every feature in the human body has been made to keep us healthy and protect us from harm. The order inside the systems within the human body, the arrangement manifested at every point, show us that an unmatched power, a sublime mind, has created the human body.
This is the Creation of Allah, Lord of the Worlds. His might is unlimited. Therefore, everyone who realizes this should also be aware of the blessings bestowed on him or her by Allah.
People must know that their bodies are a blessing from Allah, and must constantly give thanks.
Does not man see that We created him from a drop yet there he is, an open antagonist! He makes likenesses of Us and forgets his own Creation, saying, ‘Who will give life to bones when they are decayed?’ Say ‘He Who made them in the first place will bring them back to life. He has total knowledge of each created thing. (Surah Ya Sin, 77-79)