The rain forests that astonished human beings centuries ago disappointed evolutionists with various animals and plant variations they harbor.
Any mention of rain forests, also known as tropical forests, at first sight bring glamorous butterflies, original looking insects, colorful birds and lush trees to mind. Located at equatoric regions, rain forests are characterized by sammenflette and high trees. It has been estimated that many millions of species of plants, insects and microorganisms are still undiscovered.
The first European discoverers who arrived at the South African rain forests about 250 years ago were astonished at the diversity of living species.
A tropical forest is distinguished from other forests in terms of its structure. It is characterized by very high trees extending up to 50 meters. On the trunks of these trees live various lichen and mushroom species. A great number of birds, insects and animals live on the top of such trees. Under these high trees there are many medium-height trees such as palms, cedar, mahogany and fig trees. The trunks of these trees are covered with colorful orchids, cactuses, fem and mosses. The grass, covering the ground layer of the forest, makes up a dense flora and accommodates a great number of insects, bacteria and mushroom species.
Rain forests which make up 7% of the lands on Earth and a total of 40 to 75 percent of all species on the world’s habitats are indigenous to the rainforests. Researchers state that this ratio may change as our knowledge on biologic variation improves. Mr. Thomas Lovejoy, a well-known researcher from Smithsonian Institute, states the following about this issue: "As more research is conducted on rain forests by different methods the more bio diversity may arise.” (Thomas E. Lovejoy, “Biodiversity: What Is It?”,p. 8, Marjorie L. Reaka-Kudla, Don Wilson Biodiversity II, Washington D.C, 1997)
In order to illustrate the above-mentioned variation we can give a few examples: One decare (10.000 sqmts ) of tropical forest can shelter more than 600 tree species. (M. Encarta Encyclopedia 2001 Deluxe Edition CD, “Rain Forest”) From one region of an Amazon Basin one can collect 440 kinds of butterflies in a day. (M. Encarta Encyclopedia 2001 Deluxe Edition CD, “Amazonian Biodiversity”) 43 different species of ants and 650 different species of insects are indigenous to a single tree. Again it is possible to come across hundreds of bird species in a region of one square kilometer. Samples taken from 10 trees in Borneeo reveal more than 2.800 arthropod species. The number of species of insects estimated to live in tropical forests is about millions.
Notice that the numbers mentioned above is not the total number of species living in a particular environment; it is only the number of species. In addition to these enormous numbers, what astonishes human beings is the harmony and cooperation among the species amounting to millions according to some experts and tens of millions according to some others. (Harun Yahya, For Man of Understanding)
Generally the earth in the rain forests is thought to be rich, efficient and productive. However, this has recently been understood to be incorrect. Compared to other forests, the earth of rain forests are poor in terms of nutritious quality. (M. Encarta Encyclopedia 2001 CD, “Environment, Tropical Forest”) The answer to the question of how could such poor soil yield abundant and diverse plants lies in the eco-system of rain forests.
Diversity of species in tropical forests are created on delicate and mutual balances. For example, the microscopic species, small insects and mushrooms are of micro sizes compared with the giant trees and animals of various sizes but they assume significant roles, for they are responsible for cleaning the forest and rendering the soil productive. They use leaves and branches falling from trees and dead animals and return them into the eco system. This way, nothing is wasted away. Prof. Edward Wilson explains importance of this mechanism as follows: "with leaf cutter ants and other ant species, bacteria, mushrooms, termites, mites and many dead plants are processed. This way nutritive materials are recycled and keep all the tropical forests alive.” (Hidden Garden of Nature by Tubitak -Doğanın Gizli Bahçesi, 2000 p. 134)
The number of species living in rain forests is unknown. However one fact is certain: each species in this eco-system assume important and distinctive roles and millions of species live in perfect harmony. This is related in an article as follows:
“In this complicated eco system of the Amazon Basin the continuity of species is closely interrelated with one another. Whether a plant or an animal, every species contributes to a minor part of this system which is made up of millions of components. All the trees, epiphytes on trees (non rooting plants in soil), mushrooms, monkeys, vampire bats, eagles, parrots, river crocodiles, water lilies, invisible micro organisms in this giant eco system have different contributions to this giant eco-system in which they live. Here, very delicate balances are in question. The rain forest exists with all these species. Even the elimination of one species unbalances many systems." (Bilim ve Teknik [Science and Techniques], Caglar Sunay, April 1999, p.5)
In the forests species are so interdependent to one another that one cannot survive without the existence of another. 90 percent of trees in rain forests need animals in order to spread their seeds. On the other hand, insect larvae, catkins, birds, and other animals are fed on these seeds. For example, fig tree species and the fig fly are so interdependent on each other that they cannot survive without each other. Without the fig fly the fig trees cannot fertilize themselves. Without fig trees fig flies remain bereft of their natural environment. In the tropical regions, there exist a different kind of fig fly for each of the 900 fig tree species.
One point deserves special mention here: the body and structure of fig fly and the structure of the flower and fertilizing organs; the flying program of the insect and the opening time of the flower are in perfect harmony. Explaining this harmony among the species has always been a great problem for Darwinism. This phenomena has a single explanation: The harmony among plants and animals is a consequence of a unique design. It is impossible for this system to come into existence by evolution’s unconscious mechanisms and slight changes in time. As an example let’s examine the harmonic co-existence of Xanthopan morganii, a butterfly species, and a Madagascar orchid. While collecting nectar, this butterfly extends its hose of 30-35 cms into the orchid which is also about 30 cm and fertilizes it. In order for the egg in the depths of the flower to be fertilized, this orchid needs an insect with a hose of such length. That is, it is obligatory for both of the species to have harmonious attributes. In the face of this state evolutionists remain silent, for it is by no means possible for the two species to go through a parallel “evolution process” at the very same time.
This situation deserves further explanation: Let’s assume that Madagascar orchid and Xanthopan morganii butterflies have shorter ancestors with shorter hoses. (According to the theory of evolution the starting point should be this assumption) If this were the case, each species had to lengthen at the same time. For this end, both the butterfly and the orchid had to be simultaneously exposed to mutations that caused hose or channels to get longer and these mutations had to only make beneficial changes. Furthermore, individuals going through mutations should have existed at the same time at the same place and get into contact with one another. These aside, these individuals have to remain in a more advantageous state and this so-called mutation-selection process had to infallibly proceed “by chance” for millions of years without any interruption.
To believe in such a story is like believing that a lock and the key that opens it have come into being “by chance” separately, in a harmonious fashion. The fact is however, both species are created by Allah, the Lord of the heavens, earth and everything in-between. This is related in the Qur’an as follows:
Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the night and the day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of mankind; in the rain which Allah sends down from the skies, and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead; in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth; in the change of the winds, and the clouds which they Trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth;- (Here) indeed are Signs for a people that are wise. (Surat al-Baqara, 164)