The Prophet Adam (as), the first human being Allah created on Earth, and the last baby who will open his eyes to the world at the last days of this world…All the people that have appeared and will appear on Earth are different from one another. No individual is the same as the other. With His infinite might of creating, Our Lord created every human being with features peculiar to himself just like the fingerprints. This is a manifestation of our Lord’s attribute of al-Sani.
Our Lord makes the DNA, the tiniest information bank of the world which is unseen even with the naked eye, instrumental in the formation of physical features. These miniscule banks harbour the “description” of every human being.
Where is DNA?
To locate the DNA, one needs a very powerful electron microscope which enables us to see the cells that make up the human body. When a cell is magnified 50 million times, one can reach the DNA. (For instance when a grain of sand is magnified 50 million times, it becomes the size of a huge mountain.)
DNA is located within the chromosome which is in the middle of a cell. Chromosome is made up of 46 very long and very thin fibrils. These fibrils are so tiny that it is difficult to see them even with the help of an electron microscope. One can imagine the thinness of a DNA fibril when it is considered that 5 million fibrils can fit in a pinhole.
DNA resembles a twisted ladder. It is a long molecule referred to as double-stranded.
What is a Gene?
Gene is a component of DNA. It is an “administrative” molecule that includes all the features that specify us such as our hair, eyebrows, eyes, skin colour, height etc. For this reason it has the attribute of “administrator.” It specifies every happening related to our body and even to which diseases our body is prone.
What is Genome?
The genome is the entirety of an organism’s hereditary information, the whole set of chromosomes.
What are the nucleotide bases?
Nucleotide bases are the chemical materials that make up the DNA. They are defined with the letters A, T, C, G which symbolize adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine.
The structure of the DNA could only be discovered half a century ago. Scientists are still in an effort to find many genes responsible for physical attributes and try to understand subtle information about the DNA.
The information the DNA possesses and the processes carried out by it is a whole world in itself.
From the moment of birth until one’s last breath, this unusually perfect structure carries out every function essential for the survival of a human being with no flaws or errors in the background, without that person ever being aware of them.
A human being is even unaware of the functions carried out by a structure that belongs to him. Furthermore, in order to have an idea of the organised functions of DNA, he engages in lengthy research by the help of laboratories and special technical equipment.
No doubt it is All Mighty Allah Who creates these chemical transactions that are even hard to understand for a human being.
The repair mechanisms in DNA and the superior details pertaining to these mechanisms
DNA have many duties. Apart from these duties there are complex systems within the DNA that work in an enormously perfect manner. One of them is the very powerful repair mechanism of DNA.
The repair mechanisms are very powerful because they can often replace or remove nucleotide bases. This system can be resembled to powerful work machines that displace a heavy structure and replace it with another one.
This equipped organized repair crew is also in need of additional support in order to ensure that their work is carried out properly and not destroy the whole genome in the process. That is where a giant support crew enters the equation. These are called regulators.
If DNA repair mechanisms are medics flying out to the damaged site, then the regulators would be the control tower that finds the sites, guides the planes, and tells them when to get to work and when to retreat.
DNA repair is carried out by a plethora of enzymatic activities that chemically modify DNA to repair DNA damage, including nucleases, helicases, polymerases, topoisomerases, recombinases, ligases, glycosylases, demethylases, kinases, and phosphateases. All these can be resembled to repair equipment. These enzymes are like machines that meet different needs such as a plane, automobile, power shovel, crane or a forklift. These repair tools must be precisely regulated, because each in its own right can wreak havoc on the integrity of DNA if misused or allowed to access DNA at the inappropriate time or place.
The DNA repair mechanisms themselves are fascinating with the intelligent plan they display. But what is more compelling is the regulation of the repair mechanisms. Regulatory mechanisms are always on duty for repair. However these repair mechanisms also need to be regulated, directed and supported. There are regulators in place to recruit the right repair mechanism, lead it to the damaged spot, activate the repair mechanism, and "coordinate the choice of the pathways to employ for efficient DNA repair. That is, the regulators are almost like a control tower or a central command system.
What is DDR?
These regulatory mechanisms which we resemble to a control tower or a central command system are called DDR.
When damage occurs in the DNA or when a signal reporting the copying of the DNA reaches, DDR specifies pathways to reach the destinations.
It works as a perfect programmer protecting the cell and restoring the threat to the organism. For instance double strand breaks have four different repair pathways. However, all of this is just the regulation of the DNA repair mechanism, not the actual repair itself.
Such precision, regulation, and coordination point towards a designed mechanism. We see regulatory processes in computer programming and in engineering when the programmer or engineer wants to ensure the integrity of a vital part of his system. Without these regulators, the whole system is corrupted.
DDR system is an indivisible entity of the DNA repair mechanism. They need to definitely co-exist. Claiming that these structures evolved gradually and independently from one another is enormously irrational. For the flawless existence of the DNA, it is essential for the same functions to take place simultaneously. The slightest error will hinder the intermediate processes that discharge vital duties.
Everything needs to work perfectly, flawlessly and in coordination; all these display our Lord’s artistry, infinite flawless plan and might of creating.
It is impossible for a DNA;
- to form itself,
- to collect a huge amount of information by itself,
- to be wise enough to think that it needs to copy the information and secure them,
- to know that the damage has to be repaired flawlessly,
- to think that the repair team that perform the repair also needs repair, renovation and organisation,
- and to decide that pathways need to be supervised by a command system such as a control tower.
The perfect structure of our body, all our organs, cells, and the DNA that harbour an intact “description” of a human being is surely the work of our All Mighthy Creator.
It is obvious that a fake process such as evolution Darwin attributes to random mutations can not form an immaculate and extraordinary system that is far beyond human intelligence.
Our Lord, the Creator of everything in the world and in heavens, relates in Surah Yunus that even the tiniest particle is not far from Him as follows:
…. Not even the smallest speck eludes your Lord, either on earth or in heaven. Nor is there anything smaller than that, or larger, which is not in a Clear Book… (Surah Yunus,61)